The objective of this study was to analyze the association between gait speed and physical function as well as cognitive function in elderly individuals with presarcopenia. Subjects were divided into the normal muscle mass group (n=48)andthepresarcopenia group (n=17). We performed a correlation analysis of gait speed (usual/maximum gait speed) with physical function (knee extension strength, sitting-up, one-leg standing time with eyes open, and sit-and-reach distance) and cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination and Trail making test-Part A [TMT-A]). The results showed moderate or higher significant correlations of usual gait speed with knee extension strength (r=0.51) and the TMTA (r=0.52). Maximum gait speed was correlated with knee extension strength (r=0.74), TMT-A score (r=0.66), and one-leg standing time with eyes open value (r=0.56) in the pre-sarcopenia group. In contrast, in the normal muscle mass group, no moderate or higher significant correlations between gait speed and any of the items were observed. These findings indicated that elderly individuals with pre-sarcopenia may walk with a higher level of exertion than those with normal muscle mass; this finding implies that a slight decrease in leg strength, balance ability, or attention function may trigger a decrease in walking ability of elderly individuals with pre-sarcopenia.
To clarify the health literacy of elderly females living in communities andits relationships with physical/psychological functions and exercise habits, a cross-sectional study was conducted, involving participants of physical fitness tests in acity.Theparticipantsʼbackgrounds, living conditions, health literacy, and exercise habits were examined using a self-administered questionnaire, while assessing their physical (muscle strength,flexibility, balance, and walking ability) and psychological (subjective health and life satisfaction) functions. On statistical analysis, propensity scores were used to control confounders, and logistic regression analysis was subsequently performed to identify factors influencing health literacy. Through analysis, subjective health and exercise habits were selected as health literacy-related factors, suggesting the necessity of promoting subjective health and the development/maintenance of exercise habits to enhance health literacy.
This study carried out an exhaustive survey among community-dwelling independent elderly people to determine the prevalence of knee and/or low back pain. The subjects were 3,064 independent elderly people, aged 65-75, living in Onga town, Onga-gun,Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. None of the participants were receiving services from the National Long-Term Care Insurance. Questionnaires were sent to all the subjects. The response rate was 71.1% and the effective response rate was 70.1%. The respondents were stratified by age (65-69 or 70-75) and gender and the prevalence of pain was compared among groups using the chi-squared test. The prevalence of knee pain while walking,knee pain while walking on stairs, low back pain while walking, and unstable sensation of the lower trunk while walking was reported by 18.1%, 21.9%, 16.0% and 7.3%, respectively. 8.6% had both knee and low back pain while walking and 25.6% had both. On comparison among groups, the prevalence of knee or low back pain was similar between thetwoage groups but was significantly higher among females. Knee pain is slightly more common than low back pain with a prevalence of approximately 20%, and elderly females are more likely to have knee or low back pain.
[Purpose] To identify factors that affect the levels of osteoarthritis in patients with early knee osteoarthritis. [Participants and Methods] We investigated factors affecting the levels of deformation by evaluating the range of knee flexion, range of knee extension, 30 second chair stand test results, and open-eyed one-leg standing timein48women in the early/initial stages of gonarthrosis. [Results] The comparison between the groups of grade 1 and 2 knee osteoarthritis cases showed a significant difference in flexion range of motion, which was identified as a factor that affects osteoarthritis levels. [Conclusion] The results suggested that in patients with early knee osteoarthritis, particularly the flexion range of motion must be maintained and increased intensively in the physical therapy.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the physical characteristics of females with locomotive syndrome (Locomo 25) aged <65 years and living in the region. The subjects were 31 females, aged 20 to 64 years, living in the region. Using “Locomo 25”as a test,we evaluated 5 items for physical function assessment and body composition (trunk muscle volume/upper limb muscle volume/lower limb muscle volume/bone mineral density/skeletal muscle mass index (SMI)). The results were compared between locomo (n=12) and non-locomo (n=19) groups, to which the subjects were assigned based on “Locomo 25”. In the former, the height was significantly lower, and the SMI, as well as the upper/lower limb and trunk muscle volumes, which were evaluated as parameters of the body composition, were significantly lower. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the bone mineral density or any item for physical function assessment between the two groups. These results showed that there was a reduction in the muscle volume in <65- year-old females regarded as having locomotive syndrome using “Locomo 25”, although there was no reduction in the physical function, suggesting the necessity of adequate exercise and lifestyle guidance in the early stage.
This paper investigated the effects of 14 weeks of self-exercise on physical functions among community dwelling older adults. Eighteen older adults (mean age = 74.1 years) participated in the study. The participants were instructed to perform three kinds self-exercise (standing on one leg for a minute, moving from sitting to standing positions using a chair for ten repetitions, and brisk walking) daily for a period of 14 weeks. Physical functions (strength, balance, physical performance, and body composition) were measured before and after the self-exercise term and the values were compared. The results showed that participantsʼbalance function improved with self-exercise, but skeletal muscle mass index declined during the 14 weeks. Adherence of each self-exercise variedamongthe participants, and deceased adherence rate in mid period. These findings suggest that regular self-exercise can maintain physical function in older adults but is not enough to increase their muscle mass. Regular supervision or encouragement may be necessary to facilitate exercise adherence and improvement of physical functioning among older adults
Abstract: [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate association betweentoe grip strength and gait function or balance function in patients with stage 2 and 3 (Hoehn & Yahr) Parkinsonʼs disease (PD) who live at home. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 10 patients with stages 2 and 3 PD (Hoehn & Yahr) who lived at home. Toe grip strength, maximal gait speed, preferred gait speed, functional reach test score, one-leg standing time, and timed up-and-go test score were measured. Relationships between toe grip strength and these measurement items were statistically analyzed using spearmanʼs rank correlation coefficient. [Results] A positive correlation was observed between toe grip strength and functional reach test; however, no such association was observed for the other measurement items. [Conclusion] These results suggest that toe gripstrengthmay reflected with static balance in patients with stage 2 and 3 PD.