To clarify simple methods to assess community-dwelling elderly femalesʼlower extremity functions, 154 elderly females leading an independent life in communities were assessed using the 30-second Chair Stand Test (CS-30) and 10-second Chair Stand Test for the Frail Elderly (Frail CS-10), and the correlations between scores from these tests and the upper/lower limb and trunk muscle strength, flexibility, and static/dynamic standing balance were analyzed. Multiple regression analysis revealed that both CS-30 and Frail CS -10 scores are correlated independently with 3 parameters: the quadriceps femoris muscle strength, number of sit-ups, and TUG score. The results support the usefulness of CS-30 and Frail CS-10 as simple and convenient scales not requiring special devices to assess community-dwelling elderly femalesʼlower limb muscle strength and dynamic balance. Frail CS-10 was suggested to be particularly useful as a method to simply assess the lower extremity functions of such females, including those leading an independent life.
To clarify the clinical usefulness of the strength of the muscles involved in hip abduction with flexion, the influences of knee pain on such strength and that of the quadriceps femoris were examined, involving 227 community-dwelling elderly females divided into 2 groups with (45) and without (182) knee pain. For both groups, the strengths of the muscles involved in hip abduction with flexion and quadriceps femoris, toe and hand grip strengths, number of sit-ups, CS-30, TUG, and 5MWT scores, and body composition (muscle mass, skeletal muscle mass, and lower limb muscle mass) were measured. The strength of the muscles involved in hip abduction with flexion was significantly correlated with all physical function parameters in both groups. The quadriceps femoris muscle strength was significantly correlated with all physical function parameters in the group without knee pain, but it was not significantly correlated with TUG or 5MWT scores in the group with it. The results suggest that the strength of the muscles involved in hip abduction with flexion is more useful than that of the quadriceps femoris to assess the dynamic standing balance and walking abilities of elderly people with knee pain.
This study was conducted to ascertain the physical function of communitydwelling elderly women who developed mild cognitive impairment (MCI) 1 year later. We included 201 community-dwelling elderly women without cognitive impairment at the baseline. Participants whose Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score declined to 24- 26 or was maintained?27 a year later were assigned to the MCI (n=36) and non-MCI (n= 165) groups, respectively. With propensity-score matching to control for confounding factors that affected cognitive decline, two groups with 36 individuals each were created to comparatively analyze the intergroup differences in physical functioning at the baseline. The MCI group showed a significantly shorter duration on the One-leg Stand Test and significantly longer durations on the Timed Up and Go Test and 5-m Walking Test at maximum speed. These findings suggest that the evaluation of balance and mobility may serve as a useful screening tool for predicting the onset of MCI after 1 year in communitydwelling elderly women.
The purpose of this study was to verify the effects on posture control ability and walking ability by wearing insole that enhance the toe grip function in patients with home Parkinsonʼs disease. About the center position of the center of gravity sway meter,the center position of the front and rear, the outer peripheral area and the total trajectory length, the distance of movement of the center of gravity (%forth-and-back; %FB) in the anteroposterior direction to the foot length, which is an index of the abilitytomovethe center of gravity forward and backward, and the maximum walking speed, we compared barefoot and wearing insole. As a result, the front-back center position was shifted forward when wearing the insole, and %FB and maximum walking speed were improved. The effect of this insole was suggested: modification of the central position of the foot pressure, which is peculiar to Parkinsonʼs disease, improvement of the abilitytomovethecenter of gravity in the anteroposterior direction, and improvement of the maximum walking speed.
Robot-assisted activity (RAA) is a countermeasure for mental health problems among the elderly by providing pleasure and relaxation through interaction with robots. To clarify the immediate effects of RAA with a communication robot on elderly people. This study included12elderly women with no orthopedic or nervous system disorders, motor deficits, or sensory disorders. Participants received5minutes of RAA using a communication robot, and their neurophysiological indices were assessed. Emotions and mood states were measured following RAA. Moreover, restingstate EEG activity as indicated by alpha power, beta power, and the relative power index (alpha/beta) was assessed on Fz and Pz before and after RAA. Our results demonstrate that participants felt more positive emotions and mood states, such as “warm”and “fun,”after RAA. However, the resting state brain activity of the participants did not change after RAA. This study suggests that RAA with a communication robot modulates psychological factors in elderly women. Thus,RAA with a communication robot may be useful in supporting the mental health of elderly women.
The purpose of this study was to investigate spinal column mobility, trunk muscle mass, and the prevalence of lower back pain in young adult women with Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH), and to determine their impact on lower back pain. Physical characteristics associated with trunk muscle mass and spinal mobility were evaluated in 125 female students at a Japanese medical university.The study participants were categorized into the GJH, limited joint hypermobility (LJH), and non-GJH groups according to their Beighton scores, and an intergroup comparison of the variables was performed. The proportion of participants with GJH was 36.0%. A three-group comparison revealed that entire spine extension, and entire spine flexion mobilities were significantly high in the GJH group, whereas no significant differences were found in the prevalence of low-back pain or trunk muscle mass. These findings indicate that young adult women with GJH had excessive spine mobility, but no decrease in trunk muscle mass or increase in the prevalence of low back pain, suggesting that GJH has little effect on low back pain.
[Purpose] To clarify the number of floating toes and its association with physical functions, such as balance and walking abilities, in Parkinsonʼs disease (PD). [Participants and Methods] The participants were 16 PD patients (male: 7, female: 9, mean age:72.4±6.4, and Hoehn & Yahr Staging Scale grade: II: 5, III: 9, and IV: 2) living at home. After screening for floating toes, body composition and physical function measurements were performed, and the association between the number of floating toes and results of each measurement was examined using the Spearmanʼs rank correlation coefficient. [Results] The incidence of floating toes was 87.5%, and the mean number of floating toes was 1.0 (1.02.3). The number of floating toes was negatively correlated with walking speed (p <0.05) and toe gripping force (p<0.01). [Conclusion] The findings suggest that, in patients with Parkinsonʼs disease, a higher number of floating toes is associated with reduced walking ability and toe function.