The present study was conducted to examine the validity and reliability of the Figure-of-Eight Walk test in which participants were asked to walk at theirmaximum speed (F8Wmax). The subjects were 85 elderly people living in the community. They underwent the following tests, and scores and measurements were determined:theF8 Wmax (time and number of steps required to finish the course), grip strength, sit-up,forward-bending in the sitting position, standing on one foot with the eyes closed, walking along a 10-m course with obstructions, walking speed test, strength of the quadriceps,TUG (Timed Up and Go), and FRT (functional reach test). The validity and reliability of the F8Wmax were examined using Pearsonʼs and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC),respectively. Both the time and number of steps in the F8Wmax were significantly correlated with the time in the 10-m obstruction walking test and TUG. The ICCs of the time and number of steps required in the F8Wmax were 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. The reliability and validity of the F8Wmax, designed to assess the physical fitness of the elderly living in the community, have been established.
[Objective] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of different loading methods and loads on muscle activities. [Method] Muscle activities of 15 healthy female subjects are evaluated at the elbow flexion angle of 90 degrees. Forces applied were set as 30%, 50% and 70% of the maximum voluntary contraction of the biceps brachii muscle. Two methods, “self-selection”and “selection by others”, were used for application of force. In the “self-selection”method the subject his/herself adjustedtheforcetothetarget value while viewing the screen displayed, and in the “selection by others”method the examiner adjusted the force. [Results] Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant main effects of the weight loads and loading modes. Higher level of muscle activities were observed in the “self-selection”mode than in the “selectionbyothers”mode,and, in both weight loading modes, muscle activities increased as the weight load is gradually increased. [Conclusion] The results suggests that the level of load weight being equal,the “self-selection”loading mode led to higher level muscle activities than “selection by others”mode.
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of vibratory stimulationinduced kinesthetic illusion on brain function with hemiparetic stroke patients by using EEG analysis. Ten stroke patients were studied. The subjects did not exhibit motor and sensory paralysis. Brain waves were measured in the resting condition and in the presence of vibratory stimulation. As a neurophysiological index to evaluate brain function, the μ-rhythm, which is present mainly in the kinesthetic cortex and is attenuated by movement or motor images, was used. Calculated data were compared using analyses of Source Localization by the eLORETA. The results showed that, in the resting condition, the kinesthetic cortical μ-rhythm appeared in the sensorimotor cortex and supplementary motor cortex. In the vibratory stimulation condition, no μ-rhythm appeared in the sensorimotor cortex, These findings suggested that kinesthetic illusion increases the neural activities of the sensorimotor cortex.
[Purpose] The concept of lateral dominance was used to examine the influence of exertion on the body flexibility of elderly individuals. [Subjects and methods] Subjects included 35 healthy right-handed elderly adults (10 men, 25 women) aged ?60 years. Measurement items included the distance between the tips of the middle fingers of both hands with the arms diagonally stretched behind the back (middle fingermiddle finger distance [MMD]), forward reach in the long sitting position, and shoulder joint range of motion (ROM). In the MMD test, we compared the measured value with the left hand under the shoulder with that of the right hand under the shoulder. We also analyzed the correlation between the measured MMD value of the forward reach in the long sitting distance and the measured shoulder joint ROM; moreover, we analyzed the influence of the provided factor on MMD. [Results] The MMD did not differ significantly when the hand was placed over versus under the shoulder. We found significant correlations in measurements between the group in which the subjectsʼright hands were placed under their shoulders in internal and external rotation of the right shoulder joint and the group in which the subjectsʼleft hands were placed under their shoulders in internal and external rotation of the right and left shoulder joints. Internal rotation of the right shoulder joint was a factor in the group in which the subjectsʼright hands were placed under their shoulders. The external rotation of the right shoulder joint affected the measurements of the group in which the subjectsʼleft hands were placed under their shoulders. [Conclusion] Upper-extremity flexibility is affected by ROM on the individualʼs dominant side, and a decrease in flexibility with a decrease in use is suggested.
We implemented once every two weeks two interventions for community dwelling elderly, and investigated their effects on the physical functions, health-related QOL (SF-8), and exercise habits. In 22 healthy community dwelling elderly persons, we compared the physical functions, health-related QOL, and exercise habits between before and after the interventions. The results demonstrated a significant prolongation of the one -foot standing time for physical functions and a significant improvement in the subscales of Physical Component Summary (PCS), Vitality (VT), and Role Physical (RP), for the healthrelated QOL, in addition to a significantly increased frequency of regular exercise, indicating improvement in exercise habits. In contrast, we observed no change in the muscle strength and walking ability. The results of the present study confirmed that even lowlevel exercise intervention can have beneficial effects on the balance ability, health-related QOL, and exercise habits. However, it was suggested that we need to investigate the intensity, frequency, and duration of exercise in order to improve the muscle strength and walking ability.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the factors related to various gait parameters in community dwelling elderly. Eighty-Eight elderly (over the age of 65) women participated in this study. We measured body height, body weight, gait parameters (gait speed, stride length, stance time, and step width) and physical functions (knee-extension strength, foot-gripping strength, hand-gripping strength, sit-up test, sitting trunk flexion and one-leg standing). The results of correlation analysis between each gait parameter and each physical function indicated as below: 1) knee-extension strength, foot-gripping strength and one-leg standing were significantly correlated with each gait parameters. 2) Moreover, body height was correlated with gait speed and stride length. Hand-gripping strength and sit-up test were correlated with gait speed and stance time. These finding suggest that the lower extremity strength and balance ability were the most relevant factor of each gait parameters. Moreover, the gait speed might need to adjust bybodyheight.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate of muscular activity of triceps brachii muscle during elbow flexor gradually for strength. Methods: Fifteen right handed healthy subjects were recruited in this study (gender:women, age: 20.5±0.9). Right biceps brachii muscle (agonist) and triceps brachii muscle (antagonist) activation were measured by surface electromyography. Subjects performed isometric right elbow flexion from the level of 10% strength of maximum elbow flexion strength (maximum strength) to 80% strength of maximum strength. Since, wecompared muscular activity of 10% strength of maximum strength with each strength for each muscle. Results: Integrated electromyography (IEMG) of agonist is significant increase at equal to or greater than 40% strength of maximum strength. And, IEMG of antagonist is significant increase at equal to or greater than 50% strength of maximum strength. Agonist and antagonist muscular activity is correlated with levels of elbow flexion strength. Conclusion: In present study, the results suggested that agonist is mainly activated for the levels of moderate elbow flexion strength or less. On the other hand, antagonist is activated beyond the levels of moderate elbow flexion strength.