This study aims to clarify the effects that the physical, mental, and cognitive functions have on the Instrument Activity of Daily Living (IADL) of the elderly living in nursing homes, using the covariance structure analysis. The conformity degree of the model was found to be CFI=0.969, TLI=0.955, RMSEA=0.059, SRMR=0.054. Physical and cognitive functions decreased with aging. The physical function was related to the IADL,and the cognitive function was related to the IADL through the physical function. It suggests that to aim for the maintenance and improvement of the IADL, it is important to improve not only the physical functions but also the cognitive functions of the elderly.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors affecting hallux valgus in elderly females, with attention paid to the foot shape. [SubjectsandMethods] The subjects consisted of 176 females (mean age, 73.8±5.7 years) in the community who belonged to a health club for the elderly and underwent a physical fitness test. To identify factors affecting hallux valgus, the following items were evaluated: age,height,body weight, Body Mass Index, and foot/toe morphological variables (foot length, foot width,first-toe angle, fifth-toe angle, spread foot angle, and the ground contact states of the sole and toes) measured using a foot pressure distribution measurement system. In addition,the presence or absence of hallux valgus and floating toes was determined. [Results] As a result of stepwise multiple regression analysis, only the foot width was identified as a factor affecting hallux valgus. [Conclusion] For the health of the foot and toes, the size of shoes should be selected with consideration given to not only the length but also width of the foot.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between the presence or absence of fall experience and physical, cognitive, and mental functions in elderly people with exercise habits. The subjects consisted of 158 elderly people (age ? 60 years) with exercise habits who participated in a physical fitness test in the community. Physical,cognitive, and mental functions were compared between subjects who had experienced a fall within the last 1 year and those without this experience using two-way analysis of variance. Significant improvement was observed in the results of the 30-secondchairstand test as a parameter of lower limb muscle strength compared with those in the previous year, but no main effect of the year was observed in the other items (grip strength, sit-andreach distance, walking ability, cognitive function test, depression scale). However, the depression tendency was significantly more marked in the group with fall experience than in the group without such experience, but the other items showed no significant main effect of the group. In addition, the χ2 test revealed that the elderly group with fall experience within the last 1 year more readily falls. As a result of categorization according to the combination of fall experience and mental function, the incidence of falling was 63% in the high-risk group and 10% in the low-risk group. These results suggest that exercise habits in elderly people are associated with physical, cognitive, and mental functions irrespective of the presence or absence of falling, and falling can be predicted based on the past fall experience and decreased mental function.
Motor resonance that occurs by observation of other movements is affected by motor experience of self, however the influence of non-biological motion is unclear. The present study investigated the influence of motor experience on motor resonance of participants observing non-biological motion. Participants performed horizontal arm movements while observing non-biological, incongruent (vertical) movements of a visual stimulus (triangle object) in pre-test and post-test procedures. Furthermore, participants executed vertical movements as motor experience, between the pre-test and post-test procedures. Variance in the vertical direction of horizontal movements was measured as an index of motor resonance. Observing non-biological motion produced significant motor resonance on executed movements. There was no significant difference in the degree of motor resonance before and after the participants experienced the vertical movements as motor experience. The present study showed that observing non-biological motion can interfere with motor control. It is suggested that motor experience does not affect the subsequent motor resonance even if only the movement direction between self and other is consistent.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the days until the introduction of knee-ankle-foot orthoses and motor function on the affected side as well as the rate of change in the FIM score in patients with cerebrovascular disease. The subjects consisted of patients with cerebrovascular disease treated on an inpatient basis in a hospital for whom knee-ankle-foot orthoses were created. The investigation items were age, sex, disease name, days from the onset of the disease to the introduction of a kneeankle-foot orthosis, and the SIAS and FIM scores at the time of the introduction of the orthosis and at the end of rehabilitation. For statistical analysis, the relationship between the days from the disease onset to the introduction of a knee-ankle-foot orthosis and the rate of change in the SIAS (motor function on the affected side) score as well as the rate of change in the scores of the FIM subscales was evaluated using partial correlation analysis. As a result, the days until the introduction of a knee-ankle-foot orthosis was significantly correlated with trunk function in the SIAS, and sphincter function, transfer, and locomotion in the FIM. These results suggest that the introduction of knee-ankle-foot orthoses and rehabilitation early after the onset is useful for improving the trunk function, transfer,locomotory ability, and sphincter control.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the toe grip strength of the dominant foot and to investigate association between toe grip strength and foot flexibility or foot-arch height ratio in patients with stage 2 and 3 (Hoehn&Yahr) Parkinsonʼs disease (PD) who live at home. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 10 patients with stages 2 and 3 PD (Hoehn & Yahr) who lived at home. Toe grip strength, toe curl ability,and foot-arch height ratios of the dominant and non-dominant feet were measured. [Results] The comparison of the toe grip strength of dominant and non-dominant feet revealed no significant differences. A positive correlation was observed between the toe grip strength and toe curl ability of the dominant foot; however, no such association was observed for the non-dominant foot. [Conclusion] our results indicate that the toe grip strength of the dominant foot is recognized, and that the toe grip strength and foot flexibility of the dominant foot are associated.
We developed shoes with a structure reducing varus instability of the knee (knee varus instability reducing shoes), and evaluated their effects on walking in patients with knee osteoarthritis. The subjects consisted of 21 patients with knee osteoarthritis (all female, aged 77.4±6.4 years). The values of walking parameters were compared between the knee varus instability-reducing shoes and general shoes. Walking using the knee varus instability-reducing shoes resulted in a significant decrease in the foot angle (p<0.001) and significant increases in the stride length (p<0.001), step length (p<0.001), and walking speed (p<0.001). However, no significant difference was observed in the step width, walking angle, stance time, or double support time between the two types of shoe. The effect sizes of the foot angle, stride length, step length, and walking speed showing significant differences were in the range of Δ= 0.340.47. These results suggest certain effects of knee varus instability-reducing shoes on walking in patients with osteoarthritis.