[Purpose] This study aimed to develop a Wheelchair Seating Arm Function Test (WS-AFT), using healthy subjects. [Methods] The WS-AFT involved time measurements for 8 types of tasks, in which a subject seated in a wheelchair grasped objects on a table and moved them in forward-backward and left-right directions. Arm function was assessed in 30 healthy individuals seated in wheelchairs, using the WS-AFTandtheSimple Test for Evaluating Hand Function (STEF). The times required to complete the WSAFT and STEF tasks were compared, and the internal consistency of the WS-AFTtasks was examined. [Results] The total time required to complete WS-AFT was significantly shorter than that required to complete STEF, and the two times were significantly positively correlated. The WS-SFT tasks demonstrated sufficient internal consistency. [Conclusion] WS-AFT is a simple and brief assessment of arm function in healthy subjects in a wheelchair. The reliability and validity of WS-AFT should be examined to verify applicability to more typical wheelchair users.
To examine the effectiveness of a previously developed pair of pumps to reduce leg swelling, a crossover, single-blind study was conducted, in which the developed and general pumps were alternately worn, with measures to prevent the distinction between them. Leg swelling was assessed by calculating the lower limb volume using the water displacement method. The subjects were 24 legs of 12 female university students. Comparison of lower limb volumes in the morning and evening revealed a decrease of 15.4 ±19.5 mL with the developed pumps, and an increase of 41.7±14.0 mL with the general pumps, showing a significant difference (p<0.05). The decrease in the lower limb volume with the developed pumps confirmed their effectiveness in reducing leg swelling.
This cross-sectional study examined foot and toe morphology in 79 first-grade students of an elementary school. Floating toes were observed in 66.7 and 82.5% of males and females, respectively, while hallux valgus, digitus minimus varus, and splayfoot were absent in all students. On examining lateral differences in the foot, the left foot tended to be longer than the right foot, with a greater hallux angle, but the digitus quintus angle was greater on the right compared with left side among males. Among females, significant lateral differences were observed only in the digitus quintus angle but not in the foot length/width, hallux/intermetatarsal angle, or the number of floating toes. The results suggest that there are sex and lateral differences in the foot even among first-grade elementary school students, and floating toes are present in two-thirds of them.
We investigated the frequency and duration of exercise for communitydwelling elderly women people. On the basis of the frequency of exercise and its duration in daily life, the subjects were divided into four groups: no exercise, <30 min/day, ?30 min sometimes, and ?30 min every day. Physical function and body composition were compared among these groups. As a result, regarding physical function, comparedwithother groups, elderly people performing exercise for ?30 min every day showed more favorable values for the lower extremity muscle strength and balance skills. In addition, no significant difference was noted in physical function between elderly people performing exercise for <30 min/day and those not performing exercise on a daily basis. The latter group showed significantly higher values for the body mass index and body fat percentage than those performing exercise. The results of our study suggest that, in order for elderly people to maintain/improve their physical function, they should ideally perform exercise for >=30minona dailybasis.
The incidence of falls has been reported to be high among the elderly in a depressed state, indicating that such a state is a risk factor for falls. This study aimed to clarify the gait patterns of the elderly showing a tendency toward depression, using a sheettype gait analysis device. On comparison of the gait patterns of 17 (depression group) and 68(non-depression group) elderly individuals, who met 2 or more criteria of the 5-item Geriatric Depression Scale, the former showed a significantly lower gait speedwithmarkedly shorter strides and/or step lengths. Furthermore, the durations of the stance phase and double-support were significantly longer in the depression compared with non-depression groups. On the other hand, there were no significant differences between them in the cadence, step width, foot or gait angle, duration of the swing phase, or fluctuations in the center of the body mass. In short, the gait of the elderly showing a tendency toward depression was characterized by decreases in the stride and/or step length influencing the gait speed, as well as the prolongation of the stance phase and double support. However, neither a significant decrease in the standing balance ability nor increase in the step width or gait angle to compensate for instability, which is characteristic of the elderly with an increased risk of falls, was observed. Based on this, the increased risk of falls in the elderly showing a tendency toward depression may be associated with declines in physical fitness due to reduced attentiveness or inactivity, rather than such a tendency, as the latter itself is unlikely to lead to poor standing balance.
The present study aimed to introduce how to conduct a pet bottle cap test (PBT), which was developed to evaluate the upper limb function (movements of both hands), and discuss the reproducibility of measurement values. PBT and the Purdue pegboard test (PPT) were conducted involving 40 healthy adults (20 males and 20 females). In order to determine the reproducibility of PBT, intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated using the test re-test method. In addition, sex -based differences were determined using the unpaired t -test, and the between-hand differences and test-performance frequency were determined using two-way analysis of variance with a repeated measurement method. As a result, the reproducibility of PBT was high (intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.796-0.819) without sex-based differences. On both PBT and PPT, the time taken to complete each test was significantly shorter for the dominant than non-dominant hand,and was significantly shorter for the second compared with first round of each test. Thus,the reproducibility of PBT was high, and the test -performance frequency and results regarding the dominant hand were similar between PBT and PPT, suggesting thattheformer can be used as a simple method to evaluate the upper limb function.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the longest immobility time of knee joint during sleep in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 12 healthy adult women and the knee joint motion during sleep was measured with an electric goniometer. [Results] The average sleep time was about 6 hours. The longest knee joint immobility time was up to about 2 hours. [Conclusion] It seems that joint contracture of healthy adults does not occur because 2 hours knee joint immobility does not cause muscles contractures in knee joint. In the future, I would like to verify the relationship between the longest immobility time of the knee joint and the occurrence of joint contracture through cases.