This study aimed to examine whether the TMT-A can be an effective tool to identify people with dementia. The TMT-A was performed involving 31 elderly inpatients,and we examined the relationship between the MMSE and FIM-C. As the results, a significant correlation was observed between the MMSE and FIM-C. Subjects who required less than 5 minutes for completing the TMT-A scored more than 24 points (cut-off value) on the MMSE, showing that they were not suspected of having dementia. On the other hand,most subjects who required more than 5 minutes on the TMT-A scored less than 23 points on the MMSE, being suspected of having dementia. The results suggest the need to conduct the MMSE for subjects who require more than 5 minutes for completingthe TMT-A. Thus, the TMT-A is an effective screening test to judge the need for implementing the MMSE.
[Objective] We investigated which of a functional reach test (FRT) with open or closed eyes more efficiently reflects balance ability. [Subjects] The subjects were 60 stroke patients. [Methods] FRT with open and closed eyes were compared employing the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. In addition, the associations of the FRT with Br.stage, plantar sensation, lower limb and toe muscle strengths, TUG, walking speed, BBS, and hemispatial neglect were investigated based on Spearmanʼs rank correlation coefficient. [Results] The value on the FRT with closed eyes was significantly lower than that on the FRTwith open eyes. The results of FRT with open and closed eyes were significantly correlated with Br.stage of the lower limbs, plantar sensation, toe muscle strength, TUG, walking speed, and BBS. The correlations of the FRT with open eyes with TUG and BBS were moderate, but those of the FRT with closed eyes were strong. [Conclusion] It was shown that the FRT with closed eyes more efficiently reflected the balance ability of stroke patients than the FRT with open eyes.
[Purpose] This research considers the effects of posture on toe flexor strength measured for a subject positioned on the edge of a seat and upright, and compares crural muscle movement to study the effects of posture on toe flexor strength. [Subjects and method] Toe flexor strength was measured for twenty (20) healthy adult female subjects positioned on the edge of a seat and standing. An integrated electromyogram was used to measure the medial gastrocnemius muscle, soleus muscle, and the tibialis anterior muscle at this time, calculate %IEMG for maximum isometric voluntary contractions, and compare to measured toe flexor strength. [Results] No significant difference in toe flexor strength was found between the position at the edge of a seat and standing. Comparison of crural muscle movement shows that seat edge position was significantly higher (p<0.01) compared to the standing position for %IEMG of the medial gastrocnemius muscle. No significant difference between measurement conditions for the soleus muscle and tibialis anterior muscle was found. [Conclusion] It has been suggested that toe flexor strength can be measured without being affected by posture. The finding of a significant difference in the %IEMG of the medial gastrocnemius muscle also suggests that when gastrocnemius muscle strength is reduced, values obtained when toe flexor strength is measured for a subject positioned on the edge of a seat will be affected.
The osteoarthritic (OA) knee demonstrated reduced tibial internal rotation during squat (Saari 2005) and a knee exercise with tibial internal rotation was effective on immediately improving symptoms (Yoshida 2013). A comparison between OA and healthy knees is necessary to determine the mechanism of the reason of the clinical effects. The aim of this study was to determine if a leg press exercise with tibial internal rotation is effective on plantar pressure distribution during gait and knee rotational range of motion in healthy females. Twenty healthy, young females were randomly allocated to internal or external rotation groups, who performed a leg press exercise with either tibial internal or external rotation, respectively, for two weeks. Knee rotational range and plantar pressure distribution during gait were measured. The internal rotation group demonstrated increased internal rotation and total rotation ranges as well as medial shift of the center of plantar pressure during gait. To conclude, the leg press exercise with tibial internal rotation induced a kinematic chain of combined tibial internal rotation and hindfoot pronation during gait. Future studies will include a similar study for patients with knee OA.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ankle joint position on foot-gripping strength. [Subject and Methods] Subjects were 20 healthy women. We compared the foot-gripping strength among three ankle positions which include 10°of dorsal flexion, neutral position, 10°of plantar flexion position. [Results] A repeated analysis of variance showed that the strength of dorsal flexion was significantly lower than that of others two positions. [Conclusion] These results suggested that a neutral position and 10° of dorsal flexion were better angle than 10°of plantar flexion to produce maximum footgripping strength.
In this study, we invented a simple method to measure the ankle plantar flexor muscle strength using a handheld dynamometer, and examined the reproducibility and validity of the measured values. The subjects were 17 healthy adults and their 34 legs. We measured the strength of their ankle plantar flexor muscle, knee extensor muscle, and grip. To examine the reproducibility of the measurements of the ankle plantar flexor muscle strength, we applied its interclass correlation coefficients using the test-retest method. To examine its validity, we compared its Pearson correlation coefficientswiththoseofthe knee extensor muscle and grip. As a result, we observed that the reproducibility of our new method to measure the ankle plantar flexor muscle strength was favorable. We also observed significant correlations between its measured value and that of the knee extensor muscle strength, which we used to assess the lower-limb muscle strength, as well as that of the grip strength, which we used to assess the upper-limb muscle strength. The results suggest that our new method to measure the ankle plantar flexor muscle strength is highly reproducible, and a simple and effective way to measure the muscle strength reflecting that of the knee extensor muscle and grip.
We implemented an exercise program using the ReaLine Balanceshoes (GLAB corp.). The aim of this study was to determine if the Balanceshoes program elicit neuromuscular adaptation during landing activities. Six collegiate female volleyball players were enrolled. The subjects performed Balanceshoes exercises. One session taking 15 minutes was executed 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The Balanceshoes is a shoe-type training device aimed for correcting dynamic valgus. The sole of the Balanceshoes remains horizontally balanced only when the knee-over-the-toe position is maintained. A 4-staged progressive exercise program includes slow closedchain strengthening, joint realignment, balancing (biofeedback), feedforward (landing) and plyometric (jumping) components. Neuromuscular activity of 6 muscles was recorded during a single-limb landing and a drop vertical jump maneuvers. Post-intervention electromyographic activities of the semitendinosus (p=0.04) and the semitendinosus/biceps femoris ratio (p=0.046) during the landing phase of the single-limb landing were greater than pre-intervention activities. Post-intervention semitendinosus/biceps femoris ratio (p=0.03) during the prelanding and landing phases and vastus medialis/vastus lateralis ratio (p=0.04) during the landing phase of the drop vertical jump were also greater than pre-intervention activities. Neuromuscular adaptation during landing maneuvers were elicited which would potentially decrease the risk of dynamic valgus.