[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of air pressure body weight support treadmill (AP-BWST) on the gait cycle cadence steplengthof the frail elderly. [Subjects] The study subjects were 20 frail elderly attending a day-care facility. [Methods] AP-BWST is, use the Anti-Gravity TreadmillⓇ. Walking speed was 2 km /h, body weight support (BWS) was carried out at Full Weight Bearing (FWB), 20% BWS,40% BWS. The trunk acceleration at the time of each walking is measured and calculated maximum amplitude value and one walking cycle, walking rate, the stride. [Results] FWB and 20% BWS, in comparison FWB and 40% BWS, gait cycle extended cadence decreased step length expanded (p<0.01). In comparison to 20% BWS and 40% BWS, significant change I was not seen. [Conclusion] The results of this study AP-BWST the frail elderly,by body weight support walking (20% BWS, 40% BWS), gait cycle extended cadence decreased step length expanded was suggested that changes in the walking pattern.
[Objective] In recent years, decreases in infantsʼmotor skills and changes in their somatotypes have been regarded as a social issue. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between the somatotype and motor skills, involving preschool infants. [Subjects] The subjects were 123 preschool children aged 4-6 years old.[Methods] After measurement of the height and body weight, the results of the following motor skill tests for infants, developed by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology,were evaluated: 25-meter run, standing broad jump, ball throw, two-legged hop, and body support time. For statistical analysis, the infants were divided into 2 somatotype-based groups, ecto- and mesomorphic, and their motor skill test results were compared. The sex ratio was also compared between the groups. [Results] There were no significant differences in the sex ratio between the ecto and mesomorphic groups. No marked differences were observed between them in any of the measured motor skill test items.[Conclusion] During infancy, the relationship between the somatotype and motor skills may be weak. It was also suggested that ectomorphy is frequently observed during this period.
This study aimed to examine fatigue of the quadriceps femoris after mountain climbing. Fifteen healthy adults participated in this study. We measured the strength and activity of the muscle at maximum voluntary isometric contraction (100% MVC). In addition, we recorded measurements at 4 different voluntary contraction strengths (10%, 30%,50%, and 70% MVC). The participants performed a task that involved isometric contraction during knee extension. The main outcome measures were muscle strengthandmuscle activity, assessed using a hand-held dynamometer and surface electromyography, respectively, for the right rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), and vastus lateralis (VL). Fatigue of the quadriceps, especially the VM and VL, was observed after mountain climbing. The VM and VL, each of which is a single articular muscle, were possibly fatigued because they were repeatedly activated for weight bearing during mountain climbing.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of unweighting the hindlimbs on joint contractures when performing joint fixation for 2 hours a day or 4 hours a day. The subjects of this study were fourteen female Wistar rats. All of the ratsʼhindlimbs were suspended by hindlimb suspension. The rats were divided into two experimental groups. In the first experimental group, the right ankle joints were fixed in full plantarflexion for 2 hours a day (2 h). In the second experimental group, the right ankle joints were fixed in full plantar-flexion for 4 hours a day (4 h). The period of this study was one week. On the first and last days of this study, all of the ratsʼangles for ankle dorsiflexion were measured. On the last day, the angles of dorsiflexion in both the 2 h and 4 h groups were not significantly decreased from those on the first day. Our results indicate that unweighting the hindlimbs does not cause joint contractures in rats when performing joint fixation for 2 hours a day or 4 hours a day.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of postural control on unstable surfaces for falls of the community-dwelling elderly. The subjects were 55 community-dwelling elderly, and their fall history for 1 year was collected: the fall group and the non-fall group. For the measurement of postural control, posturography with an exclusive rubber foam was used, and measurements of the conditions with the rubber foam and without the foam were combined with the eyes opened and closed. The measurement parameters included the circumferential areas, the root mean square areas and the locus length per unit areas. The Rombergʼs quotient of each measurement parameter was analyzed. None of the measurement parameters showed any significant differences for the fall history. The measurement parameters of the fall group tended to show higher scores in comparison with the non-fall group, but the non-fall group showedhighscoresfor the Rombergʼs quotient only in the condition with the rubber foam. This finding indicates that evaluating postural control by using posturography does not show the influence of posture on falls. The fall group uses visual dominance for posture control, and the somatosensory of the lower limbs is decreased in comparison to the non-fall group.
[Objective] To investigate the effects on body composition in middle aged women using the dual energy x ray absoptiometry (DXA) by the participation of an exer cise habits acquisition program based on the behavioral science approach.[Method]The subjects, 314 sedentary but healthy women with no regular exercise habits, were assigned to an intervention group (n=280; 48.5±11.0 years) or a control group (n=34; 49.8±13.9 years). The intervention group participated in the exercise program which was for 2hoursa week over 12 weeks, and kept a daily record of the amount of accumulated stepsandtime spent on aerobic exercise. [Result] According to the twoway ANOVA and subsequent analysis showed that a significant interaction (group x time) were observed in total fat mass. In the intervention group, total fat mass was decreased significantly (p<.001) from baseline. The total amount of bone mineral content and lean tissue mass were unchanged in both groups. In the intervention group, the amount of decrease in total fat mass (1,776 ±1,737 g) was equivalent to the reduction of total body mass (1,781±1,910 g). Reduction of trunk fat mass (1,094±1,128 g) was the greatest among all four regions (head, arms, legs,trunk). [Conclusion] These results suggest that this program based on the behavioral sci ence approach was effective for selectively reducing body fat mass, especially trunk fat,while maintaining bone mineral content and lean tissue mass, in middle-aged women.
PURPOSE: “Chest gripping”is an abnormal trunk muscle activation pattern limiting lateral expansion of the lower thorax, which may reduce thoracic extension or even cause low back pain (LBP). Hypertonic upper abdominal muscles may be a cause. The serratus posterior inferior (SPI) is considered an only antagonist to the chest gripping. TheaimofthisstudywastodetermineaneffectiveexercisetoactivatetheSPI. SUBJECTS: A healthy male volunteer was recruited. METHODS: Activities of the 3 trunk muscles during 8 maximal exertion tasks and normalized surface-electromyography values were obtained. The wire electrodeandthesurface electrode were used for the measurement. RESULTS: The SPI were effectively recruited during active trunk rotation at end sitting and side lying, ipsilateral shoulder hyper-flexion compensated with trunk rotation from the all-fourʼs position. CONCLUSION: The SPI has an effect to which it carries out the rotation of the trunk by one-side activity. Therefore, it is surmised that SPI has the effect that pulls an ipsilaterally lower ribs back.