The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinematics of the Balance Walk ing Test to measure the time needed to walk slowly along a 20-cm wide and 5-m long course without deviating from it. The activities of the rectus femoris, long head of the bi ceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and medial head of the gastrocnemius, in addition to gait pa rameters, were measured during gait using a surface electromyograph and gait analysis device, respectively, involving 16 healthy adult females. The balance walking, which sub jects walk as slowly as possible, significantly increased the gait velocity and durations of the stance, double support, and swing phases, and significantly degreased the step and stride lengths and cadence against normal speed walking. Concerning muscle activity, the balance walking significantly increased the muscle activity of rectus femoris, long head of the biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle during the stance phase against normal speed walking. These results support the usefulness of this test in various settings, as it does not require specific devices or areas, and allows sim ple testing procedures.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the functional differences between community-dwelling elderly women with and without pain. A total of 186 elderly women participated in this study (mean age: 72.5 years, SD: 5.9). We assessed physical function,mental function and cognitive function. After classification of subjects by number of painful areas (pain-free, single painful area, 2 or more painful areas), we performed an analysis using analysis of variance and multiple comparisons for the number of painful areas. Compared with the pain-free group and group with a single painful area, the group with 2 or more painful areas had decreased physical function (isometric knee-extension strength,raising the upper body, one-leg standing time, and Timed Up and Go test) and decreased mental function (sleep quality and subjective health). However, the results of analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis showed no significant differences between the pain-free and single painful area groups. These findings suggest that it is necessary to assess the association between physical and mental function and pain according to the number of painful areas.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of squat exercise on muscle fatigue resistance prior to climbing a mountain. The participants of this study were 20 healthy adults. They were classified into an intervention group, wherein the participants performed the squat exercise prior to climbing a mountain and a control group wherein the participants did not perform the squat exercises. Muscle fatigue resistance was evaluated using surface electromyogram median power frequency (MDPF) while participants performed a contraction of the quadriceps muscle equivalent to 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction for 90 seconds. MDPF was measured from three muscles: the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris. Our results revealed that in the control group, the MDPF of all muscles after climbing degreased earlier than the MDPF after climbing. In the intervention group, the MPDF of the vastus medialis after climbing did not decrease and the MPDF of vastus lateralis after climbing decreased later than the MPDF prior to climbing. These results show that performing squat exercise prior to climbing a mountain can influence the muscle fatigue resistance of a single articular muscle.
In this study, 143 elderly people requiring nursing care were enrolled in order to investigate the main factors affecting the 50 m round walking test. Our methodology included analysis of the relationships between upper/lower limb strength, the30second chair stand test (CS-30),the functional reach test (FRT), the one-leg standing test, and the 50 m round walking test. The main factors showing significant correlation with the 50 m round walking test in order of descending correlation coefficients were: CS-30 (r=0.48),FRT (r=0.40),quadriceps strength (r=0.23), one-leg standing test (r=0.20), and grip strength (r=0.17).Based on the results of a stepwise multiple regression analysis, CS-30 (β=0.39) and FRT (β=0.28) were selected as the main factors affecting the 50 m round walking test. The abovementioned results suggest that muscular endurance and dynamic balance exert a greater impact on the 50 m round walking test than upper/lower limb strength and static balance.
【Objective】The purpose of this study was to investigate the foot kinematics as related to the Navicular Drop test and to examine the validity of the Navicular Drop test. 【Methods】Twelve healthy subjects participated in this study. The difference between the original height of the navicular when in a neutral subtalar joint position and the height of the navicular when in a relaxed stance position (ND) was measured using a 3D motion analysis system. At the same time, the changes in the angles between each foot segment in these positions were measured. The correlations between the ND and the change in the angle between each foot segment were determined with the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. 【Result】There were significant correlations between the ND and the change in the rearfoot pronation angle relative to the forefoot (r=0.63). 【Conclusion】The results of this study supported the validity of the Navicular Drop test as a method to measure rearfoot pronation.
We studied the influence exerted on subjectsʼbrain activity by a therapistʼs friendly/unfriendly nonverbal communication in a physical therapy setting. Subjects and Methods: Subjects were 12 healthy adult males. Subjects first relaxed with their eyes open for two minutes, then watched a video in either the friendly or unfriendly condition,and then relaxed with their eyes open for another two minutes. Results: During the friendly condition, significantly higher neural activity was observed in areas including the medial frontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus. During the unfriendly condition, significantly higher neural activity was observed in areas including the insula, amygdala, and parietal association area. Conclusions: During the friendly condition, neural activity was observed in brain areas related to sustained relaxation, desire, and motivation, whereas in the unfriendly condition, neural activity was observed in brain areas related to persistence of negative emotions, anxiety, and painful stimuli. These results suggestthatdifferencesin nonverbal communication play a role in functional differences in neural activity related to social interactions.
We investigated the age changes of oscillation at the center of gravity during “still standing”and using the Cross test with and without a cognitive task by comparing an elderly group (n=16) with a younger group (n=19). The results demonstrated a significantly longer total length of trajectory during “still standing”in the elderly group compared to that in the younger group. Two-way factorial analysis of variance with group factors with/without a cognitive task in the Cross test showed a significant main effect between the groups in the ability to shift the center of gravity in the anterior-posterior direction along the length of the feet (%FB) and in the lateral direction along the width between the feet (%LR); however, there was no significant difference with/without a cognitive task.