【Purpose】The purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationship between falling and evaluation of skeletal muscles of the Thigh region by Ultrasonography. 【Methods】This is a cross-sectional study on 152 community-dwelling elderly individuals.Age,Gender,body mass index,motor function,dual task timed up and go test performance,attention function, Thigh muscle thickness and brightness,and isometric knee extension strength were evaluated.A binary logistic regression analysis was performed on the presence or absence of falls in the previous year surveyed to identify the factors associated with falls. 【Results】One-leg standing with eyes opened test time (odds ratio 3.01) and the Dual Task Timed Up and Go Test (odds ratio 3.38) were identified as factors associated with falls.【Conclusion】None of the quantitative and qualitative factors of skeletal muscles of the Thigh region were identified to have an independent effect on the falls.These results suggested that the ability to maintain a standing position and dual task timed up and go test performance were potential factors of the risk of falls.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Functional Reach test (FRT) distance and displacement of the center of foot pressure. We enrolled 33 healthy young women and assessed FRT distance, anterior displacement of the center of foot pressure (COP-A), total length of body sway in the maximal reach position,rectangular area in the maximal reach position, and postural stability index (PSI) using a forceplate. PSI was calculated using the following equation: PSI = (FRT distance)2/rectangular area. The correlation between FRT distance and COP-A was 0.46. No correlation between FRT distance and PSI was detected. These results suggest that FRT distance is a weak measure of stability limits and dynamic balance.
[Purpose] To compare toe grip strength in the presence or absence of an ankle immobilization belt and to examine the relationship between toe grip strength or toe pressure and physical function. [Subjects and Methods] We enrolled 18 healthy young women and measured their toe grip strength, toe pressure, gait function, and balance function in the presence and absence of an ankle immobilization belt. [Results] Two-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences. A significant main effect was observed in the measurement method and measurement conditions. The relationships between toe grip strength and physical function and toe pressure and physical function were different.
To clarify the characteristics of walking in 20 patients (all female, mean age:64.0±7.0)with knee osteoarthritis, we compared parameters between walking at normal and the fastest rates. During the fastest walking, there were significant increases in the stride and step lengths as well as the walking speed (p<0.01), and significant decreases in the toe-out and step angles (p<0.05). In addition, the stance and double supporting times significantly decreased (p<0.01). However, the effect sizes of increases in the stride and step lengths to increase the walking speed were medium (Δ=0.69 for both), while those of decreases in the stance and double supporting times were large (Δ=1.62 and 1.14, respectively). These results suggest that patients with knee osteoarthritistrytowalkfast by decreasing the stance and double supporting times rather than by increasing the stride and step lengths.
【Objective】The purpose of this study was to examine the temporal change in gait ability resulted from exercise intervention in day care rehabilitation. 【Methods】Eighteen elderly subjects who received our day care rehabilitation services that specialized in exercise for more than 6 months participated in this study. The changes in the “10 m walking time”and “Timed up and go test”(TUG) were analyzed for 6 months retrospectively. 【Results】A one-month exercise intervention quickened the “10 m walking time”significantly (p<0.01), and a 2-month exercise intervention quickened the TUG significantly (p< 0.01). However, there were no further significant changes in both tests. 【Conclusion】The results of this study, as assessed by the “10 m walking time”and TUG,suggest that in day care rehabilitation approximately 2 months of an exercise intervention period is necessary to improve gait ability.
[Purpose] Purposes of this study were to compare the electromyography amplitudes of the back and hip extensor in individuals with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP) and to identify alteration in the muscle recruitment pattern during prone hip extension associated with CLBP. [Subjects] Twenty persons with CLBP and 20 healthy persons participated. [Methods] Muscle activities were recorded during prone hip extension using a surface electromyography system. The following muscles were evaluated:contralateral latissimus dorsi, bilateral erector spinae, bilateral multifidus, gluteus maximus (GM) on the hip extension side, and hamstrings on the hip extension side. Each participant was instructed to extend his hip joint until 10°and to keep this position. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to determine differences in muscle activity magnitudes between the groups. [Results] The GM activity was significantly greater in the CLBP group than in the control group. There were no significant between-group differences observed for the other muscles examined. [Discussion] Our findings indicate that the GM activity was greater in the CLBP group than in the control group. We believe this increased activity in the CLBP group was caused by reduced GM muscle strength and by increased in the ventral pelvic rotation.
The present study aimed to compare the physical and psychological and cognitive functions of 31 elderly people in need of support and 18 elderly people in need of a moderate level of nursing care. The grip strength, scores in the 30-second chair stand test,the time of standing on one leg with eyes open, and the walking speed were measured to assess their physical functions. Their cognitive functions were assessedusingtheMiniMental State Examination (MMSE) and Trail Making Test- Part A (TMT-A), and the 5- item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-5) was used for the assessment of their psychological functions. There were no significant differences in physical and psychological function assessment items between people in need of support and (a moderate level of) nursing care. However, the cognitive functions of people in need of support were significantly higher than those of people in need of moderate nursing care. Both groups are elderly people with high risk of falls. Therefore, an increase in the level of care requiredbythosepeople in need of support may be prevented by improving their fall prevention and maintaining their cognitive functions.