[Purpose] In this study, we investigated the gender differences in physique and motor fitness of preschool children, and the relationship between physique and motor fitness, and the muscle thickness measured by an ultrasound. [Subjects and methods] The subjects were 44 healthy preschool children (26 boys, 18 girls). We evaluated their body height, body weight, quadriceps femoris muscle thickness (measured by the ultrasound imaging system), muscle stiffness, foot grasp strength, grip strength, and standing long jump distance. All these measures were compared between two groups of boys and girls,and the relationship between each item was examined. We also conducted a multiple regression analysis using muscle thickness as the dependent variable, and all other variables as the independent variable. [Results] None of the items exhibited a significant difference between the boys and girls. Further, we found a significant relationship between muscle thickness and body height and weight. Body weight was found to independently influence muscle thickness. [Conclusion] Our findings suggested gender differences in preschool childrenʼs physique and motor fitness. We also found a significant relationship between muscle thickness and body height and weight. These findings indicated that body weight independently influenced muscle thickness.
[Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the relation between the 6-minutes walking distance (6MD) and various motor function or the rating of perceived exertion in stroke patients of a convalescent rehabilitation ward. [Methods] Subjects were 50 stroke patients who discharged a convalescent rehabilitation ward, and could walkbyacaneor free hand without a leg brace. The relationship between the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS), the knee extension muscular strength, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the rating of perceived exertion after the 6-minutes walking test, and 6MD was examined using partial correlation analysis, and then it was analyzed by multiple stepwise regression analysis. [Results] There were significant relationships between the knee extension test of SIAS or the BBS and the 6MD. [Conclusion] The 6MD is strongly associated to the affected lower limb and balance function than subjective fatigue in strokepatientsofa convalescent rehabilitation ward.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of supine position maintained by a stretch pole and deep breathing exercise on pulmonary function. [Methods] Thirty-six young healthy participants were randomly divided into three groups: the group maintaining the supine position on a stretch pole (SP group), the group doing deep breathing using an incentive spirometer (DB group), and the no intervention group. The participants in the two intervention groups participated in ten sessions for two weeks. Pulmonary function was evaluated by vital capacity (VC), %VC, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)，and FEV1/FVC. The data was analyzed using a repeated measures split-plot analysis of variance, multiple comparison test, and paired t-test. [Results] After the intervention, the VC and FVC for the SP group significantly increased whereas FEV 1 and FEV1/FVC for the DB group significantly decreased. The amounts of the changes in VC and FVC were significantly larger in the SP group than the nointervention group, and the amounts of the changes in FVC and FEV1 were significantly larger in the SP group than the DB group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the supine position maintained a stretch pole may be helpful to improve the lung volume in young heathy people.
This study aimed to clarify the influence of wearing heel-free slippers on walking. A total of 14 healthy women participated as subjects in this study. Using a walking analysis devise and surface electromyography, the walking parameters andmuscleactivities were compared between wearing normal and heel-free slippers. As a result, the step length, stride length, and double stancetimeweresignificantlyshorterfor heel-free than normal slippers. However, no significant difference was noted in the stance time, swing time, walking speed, or cadence. Concerning muscle activity, when using heel-free slippers,the activity of rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles significantly increased during the stance phase; however, no significant difference was noted in the activity of the biceps femoris or tibialis anterior muscle, nor in any muscle activity during the swing phase. Our findings suggest that wearing heel-free slippers is associated with a shorter step length,but facilitates the same walking speed as normal slippers by stepping quickly, due to which the activity of rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles may increase effectively.
[Objective] This study was investigated of the relationship between occlusal force and physical function in the frail elderly. [Subjects and Method] Fifty-five frail elderly persons receiving daycare service participated in the study. We measured occlusal force, number of residual teeth, grip strength, leg strength, one-leg standing time with eyes open test, Timed up and go test, and Functional reach test. Items independently associated with occlusal force were extracted in stepwise multiple regression analysis. [Results] Number of residual teeth and one-leg standing time with eyes open test were found to be independently associated with occlusal force. [Conclusion] Occlusal force, an objective indicator of mastication ability, was found to correlate with the number of residual teeth, an indicator of dental health, and one-leg standing time, an indicator of static balance ability.
【Purpose】Human modify a movement depending on sensory feedback to perform the movement correctly. Visual feedback (VF) is especially important, but the effect for muscle activity is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of VF for muscle activity.【Methods】Twelve healthy women were recruited this study. The tasks were coordination of knee extensor muscle contraction with VF or non VF. The orders of tasks were randomized.【Results】Themuscleactivitywasmorereduced at VF condition than that of non-VF conditionʼs one.【Conclusion】The results suggested that VF condition reduce excessive muscle activity, because subjects can use not only somatosensory feedback but also visual feedback at VF condition.
This study aimed to comprehensively clarify the association of falls in elderly community residents with their physical, cognitive, and mental functions. Analysis of covariance adjusted for the age and sex was performed to compare the physical, cognitive,and mental functions of 345 elderly residents who participated in fitness measurement, focusing on their experience of falls over the past 1 year. On simple comparison between those with and without such experience, marked differences were observed in the age, CS -30 results, toe grip, ability to elevate the trunk, duration of standing on one leg with the eyes open, and TUG score; those with experience of falls were significantly older, and their physical functions had declined more markedly. However, when adjusting for the age and sex, marked differences between the 2 groups were not observed in any measurement item, suggesting the necessity of considering the age and sex when examining risk factors associated with falls. It may also be necessary to draw the elderlyʼs attention to the risk of falls and promote their participation in fall prevention programs, as falls may occur even in active elderly individuals, regardless of their fall-related experience.