This study aimed to clarify the relationships among floating toes, toe functions,and the standing balance by initially examining the presence/absence of floating toes using a plantar pressure distribution measurement device, and subsequently evaluating the toe grip strength, flexibility, and dexterity, as well as the static (fluctuations in the center of gravity) and dynamic (functional reach) balance, involving healthy adult females. On comparing the measurement values of the subjects with (20) and without (43) floating toes,the former showed significantly lower values, representing the toe grip strength, its ratio to the weight, toe flexibility, and functional reach. There were no significant differences between the groups in the height, weight, toe dexterity, total trace length, or outer peripheral area. These results suggest that the presence of floating toes does not markedly influence the toe dexterity or static balance, but it reduces the toe grip strength, toe flexibility,and dynamic balance in the case of healthy adult females.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to analyze factors for community-contained acute care hospitals that affect the total length of stay in acute care and rehabilitation hospitals among patients with proximal hip fractures. [Patients] Three hundred and thirty two patients undergoing surgery for proximal hip fractures were recruited. [Methods] Using the median value of the total length of stay, we classified the patients into two groups: a short-term group and long-term group. We retrospectively analyzed factors at the time of transfer from acute care hospitals to rehabilitation hospitals.
【Objective】The purpose of this study was to examine whether the intrinsic foot muscles have the capacity to change ankle moment during gait. 【Methods】Eleven healthy male subjects participated in this study. The change in ankle moment during stance phase that results from the reinforcement of the intrinsic foot muscles stimulated by electrical stimulation was analyzed. 【Result】Following the electrical stimulation of the intrinsic foot muscles duringstance phase, the maximum internal ankle eversion moment significantly increased (p<0.05). However, the maximum values of other internal ankle moments (plantar flexion and abduction) did not change. 【Conclusion】The results of this study indicated that not only the increased activity of the ankle eversion muscles was caused by the reinforcement of the intrinsic foot muscles, but also the decreased activity of the ankle inversion muscles was caused as well. This may suggest that the intrinsic foot muscles have the capacity to decrease activity of the extrinsic foot invertor muscles during gait.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the physical, cognitive, and mental function in people with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity. Eighty-seven older individuals participated in this study, and were divided into four groups (sarcopenia group, sarcopenic obesity group, obesity group, control group) according to hand grip strength, gait speed,and skeletal muscle mass. We compared their physical (hand grip strength, gait speed, instrumental activity of daily living), cognitive (Mini-Mental State Examination), and mental function (5-item geriatric depression scale, health related quality of life), adjusted by age. Results showed that compared with the control group, the sarcopenia group had weaker hand grip strength, the sarcopenic obesity group had many depressed participants, and the obesity group had poor physical health-related quality of life. This study revealed that sarcopenic obesity, which involves lower muscle strength, muscle mass decrease, and body fat increase, affects not only physical function, but also mental function. Therefore, a multi-domain intervention may be required to prevent an increase in the number of frail elderly.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the upper arm proximal circumference of the elderly. [Methods] Thirty-five left and right shoulders of the dwelling elderly women were the subjects of this study. Upper arm proximal circumference, BMI, muscle mass, fat mass, deltoid muscle thickness, isometric abduction muscle strength, and functional elevation muscle strength were measured. The relationships among the items assessed were evaluated using Pearsonʼs correlation coefficient. The residual were calculated from the predicted value of the circumference using the simple regression analysis with the upper arm proximal circumference as an object variable and BMI as an explanatory variable, and the relationships between the residual and the other measurement items were analyzed using Pearsonʼs correlation coefficient. [Results] The upper arm proximal circumference demonstrated significant correlations among the each items. As a result of single regression analysis, significance was observed in BMI, the residual demonstrated significant correlation with muscle mass, deltoid muscle thickness,and functional elevation muscle strength. [Conclusion] These results showed the validity of the upper arm proximal circumference measurement as the test reflecting the deltoid muscles mass and thickness of the elderly.
The purpose of this study was to identify a gender-specific pattern of volleyball injuries. We surveyed a total of 469 patients (1046 injuries). We divided injuries into seven parts, shoulder, low back, knee, lower leg, ankle, foot, and others. There were significant differences in disease-specific injury incidence of foot, low back, shoulder, lower leg (P <0.01). The incidence of metatarsal stress fracture was found to be higher in women,whereas myofascial low back pain was common in both men and women. However, the incidence of discogenic low back pain was higher in men. Further, the incidence of shoulder impingement syndrome was higher in men, whereas that of loose shoulder was higher in women. The incidence of shin splints was found to be higher in women. The injuries occurred in the foot, low back, shoulder, lower leg was found to differ between men and women who play volleyball. Therefore, instructions given to volleyball players during conditioning should take gender differences into consideration.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the fall self-efficacy and the physical body function in frail elderly individuals. The study consisted of 24 frail elderly individuals. The subjects were divided into the non-fall group (n= 17) and the fall group (n=7) according to the subjectʼs fall history within one year. The fall self-efficacy scale (FSES; Takenaka, 2002) is a measure of self-efficacy/confidence of perform certain daily activities without falling. The 5-m walk test (5MWT), timed up and go test (TUG) and single leg stance (SLS) were used as the criteria of the physical body function. The Spearman rank correlation method was used to assess the relationships between the FSES in each group and physical body function tests. In the non-fall group,there was a correlation between the FSES and the physical body function tests, whereas no significant correlation was observed in the fall group. Our study shows that the physical body function was recognized by subjects own in the non-fall group due to the correlation between the FSES and physical body function. However, no such correlation was observed in the fall-group. Thus, the FSES may be a useful criterion for fall prediction.