[Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate performance on the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) under dual-task (DT) conditions using arithmetic tasks, and to investigate the relationship between the TUG performances and cognitive functions or falls. [Subjects] Thirty frail elders, who were certified as being in need of care, with a mean age of 84.7 years (SD=4.1), participated in this study. [Methods] TUG was repeated under three DT conditions, counting backward by 1 s (DT-TUG-1), 3 s (DT-TUG-3), and 7 s (DT-TUG-7) and with no DT (ST-TUG). Gait speed was measured and gait abnormality was scoredfrom videotapes of the subjects performing ST-TUG and DT-TUG-3. Dual-task-cost (DTC) was calculated for each DT-TUG as follows: [(difference between DT and ST performance)/ ST performance] ×100. Cognitive functions were assessed using the Letter Fluency Test (LFT), the Color Trails Test (CTT), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The participantʼs history of falls in the past 6 months was recorded. [Results] Gait speed in DT-TUGs was significantly reduced as the number of the arithmetic tasks increased. Significant correlations were found between DTC-1 and each of CTT, RAVLT, and MMSE. In addition, correlations were foundbetween DTC-3 and CTT, and between DTC-7 and each of CTT, and MMSE. There was no significant difference in DTC between the two groups according to the participantʼs history of falls. [Conclusion] Gait speed was reduced with increasing DT complexity. Attention was the most influential cognitive factor on change of TUG under DT conditions.
[Objective] The relationship between occlusal force and fall risk was studied in order to verify the usefulness of occlusal force measurement for fall risk assessment. [Method] Thirty-four frail elderly persons (10 men and 24 women) receiving daycare service participated in the study. The mean age was 83.0±5.7 years. The occlusal force of the participants was measured using a commercial Occlusal Force-Meter GM 10. Fall risk was assessed by using the Fall Risk Index-21 (FRI-21). As fall-related factors, leg strength, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG index), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were assessed. Items independently associated with fall risks were extracted in stepwise multiple regression analysis. [Results] VAS and occlusal force were found to be independently associatedwithFRI-21. [Conclusion] The results suggest that occlusal force is a useful assessment factor for fall risk in the frail elderly.
The present study involved elderly females living in the community who had undergone the Figure-of-8Walk test in which they walked at maximum speeds, and examined the age-specific measurements. The relationship between the F8Wmax and falls was also examined. The subjects were 134 elderly females living in the community. The time and number of steps required to reach the F8Wmax were measured, and the subjects were asked about their experience of falling over the past one year. The subjects were categorized into “60 to 69-year-old”(39), “70 to 79-year-old”(59), and “80-year-old or older”(36) groups, and the time and number of steps required to reach the F8Wmax were compared among them. There were significant differences among the three groups. The experience of falls was not significantly correlated with the time or number of steps required to reach the F8Wmax. Therefore, the reliability of age-specific F8Wmax measurements for the elderly females living in the community was suggested.
This study aimed to clarify the appropriate duration of rest for measurement of the blood pressure and pulse at rest. Twenty-seven students belonging to the Department of Physical Therapy, K-University performed exercise using the 30-second chairstand test, and their pulses and blood pressure were measured at intervals of 30 seconds for 5 minutes immediately after the termination of exercise to clarify changes in these items. The pulse significantly decreased until 2 minutes after exercise, without marked subsequent changes. No significant changes were observed in the diastolic blood pressure during the 5-minute period, while the systolic blood pressure showed 2 different patterns:descending (17): increasing after exercise and subsequently decreasing; and ascending (10):decreasing after exercise and subsequently increasing. In the descending pattern, a significant decrease in the value was observed from immediately to 2 minutes after exercise,without marked subsequent changes. In the ascending pattern, the pressure significantly increased from immediately to 30 seconds after exercise, was maintained without marked changes until after 4 minutes and 30 seconds, and significantly decreased, showing a value similar to that immediately after exercise at 5 minutes. These results suggest the necessity of setting the duration of rest in consideration of these patterns in individual cases before measurement of the blood pressure and pulse.
The purpose of the study to clarify the features of walking of CVA (Cerebrovascular attack) patients as Lyapunov exponent estimation, a method of nonlinear time series analysis, was applied to quantify the gait function and Barthel Index (BI) during walking as measured by accelerations and clarify the usefulness of the Lyapunov exponent. The study subjects were 24 CVA patients. Accelerations were measured maximal walking a three-axial accelerometer mounted on the third lumber spinous process in the vicinity. By calculating the gait index from the date of one gait cycle, we investigated the relationship between the gait function and BI features. Lyapunov exponentofthefull mark group tended to be higher the label of anterior-posterior suggesting higher the label of vertebral as compared to the non-full mark group. Step was significantly correlated with the labile of vertebral CVA patients. The results suggest that gait analysis using Lyapunov exponent, is one way to measure the labile, estimation of walking might be useful to assess locomotive ability.
【Purpose】The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of 6 months of outpatient rehabilitation with additional abdominal muscle strength training in frail elderly people.【Subjects & Methods】Subjects were conducted in 20 frail elderly people (aged 80.5 ± 6.6 years) undergoing outpatient rehabilitation who were divided in to 2 groups: the control group (n = 11) that underwent outpatient rehabilitation alone, 2 or 3 days a week for 6 months.; and the intervention group (n = 9) that underwent outpatient rehabilitation with abdominal muscle strength training 20 times a day, 2 or 3 days a week for 6months. The motor and physical components of the functional independence measure (FIM) were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using the split-plot analysis of variance. Results】FIM-M, migraine stepladder position time, 5 m fastest walking speed were observed interaction. Intervention group showed significant improvement at migraine stepladder position time and 5 m fastest walking speed. However, the control groupshoweda significant decline in FIM.【Conclusions】Outpatient rehabilitation with abdominal muscle strength training might be effective as a health promotion in frail elderly people.
We treated a case of equinus contracture, suffered from compartment syndrome of left lower leg caused by left common iliac artery damage. We compared the change of ankle dorsiflexion angle before and after static stretching (SS) and contract relax (CR). Our rehabilitation showed that both SS and CR resulted in significant improvement of ankle dorsiflexion angle. However, no significant difference was observed between the two methods. Our stretching methods may be one of the treatment means.