Elderly people (aged 65 and older) in USA and Japan fall about 30% and 20% at least once a year respectively. Various impairments and disabilities occur following falls, such as femoral neck fractures, which leads to decreases in the activities of daily living and quality of life. Therefore, falls in the elderly are a significant social problem. Muscle weakness, balance problems and gait disorders are the main risk factors which increase the falls in older people. Systematic reviews have shown that multiple-component exercises,Tai chi, multifactorial approaches (involving exercises, medication, management of urinary incontinence, fluid therapy, psychological interventions, environment/assistive technology,social environment), home safety assessments and modification interventions, anti-slip shoe devices, multifaceted podiatry techniques, including foot and ankle exercises and gradual withdrawal of psychotropic medication led to effective fall prevention in community-dwelling elderly people. For the elderly people in care facilities and hospitals,the comprehensive multifactorial interventions and vitamin D supplementation were more effective for fall prevention compared to the multiple-component exercise.
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