Elderly people (aged 65 and older) in USA and Japan fall about 30% and 20% at least once a year respectively. Various impairments and disabilities occur following falls, such as femoral neck fractures, which leads to decreases in the activities of daily living and quality of life. Therefore, falls in the elderly are a significant social problem. Muscle weakness, balance problems and gait disorders are the main risk factors which increase the falls in older people. Systematic reviews have shown that multiple-component exercises,Tai chi, multifactorial approaches (involving exercises, medication, management of urinary incontinence, fluid therapy, psychological interventions, environment/assistive technology,social environment), home safety assessments and modification interventions, anti-slip shoe devices, multifaceted podiatry techniques, including foot and ankle exercises and gradual withdrawal of psychotropic medication led to effective fall prevention in community-dwelling elderly people. For the elderly people in care facilities and hospitals,the comprehensive multifactorial interventions and vitamin D supplementation were more effective for fall prevention compared to the multiple-component exercise.
[Purpose] In this study, we present the target model for return to home by using decision trees analysis, clarify the factors necessary for the return to home. [Subjects] We classified them into two groups: the home discharged group (Male: 75, female: 61, mean age: 66.1±14.5 years) and the non-home discharged group (Male: 15, female: 11, mean age:
[Objective] To clarify the effects of the difference of loading methods and loads on muscle activity of the agonist muscle, antagonist muscle and the distal muscle. [Method] With 16 healthy female adultsʼdominant hand upper limb as subjects of study, at the elbow flexion angle of 90 degrees, 4 different load types from 10% to 70% maximum voluntary isometric contraction were used. In addition, Two loading methods were adjusted by ʻself-adjustmentʼwhere the subject looks at a display screen, and by ʻothers adjustmentʼwhere the adjustment is done by the examiner. [Result] AccordingtotheTwoway analysis of variance (ANOVA), both the weight loads difference and the loading methods had significant effect on the agonist muscle and the distal muscle. However, only the weight loads difference had a significant effect on the antagonist muscle. [Conclusion] Together with the increase of weight loads to the agonist muscle, the muscle activity of the agonist muscle, the antagonist muscle and the distal muscle also increased. Besides that,the muscle activity of the agonist muscle and distal muscle are higher in ʻothers adjustmentʼcompared to ʻself-adjustmentʼ.
To investigate the influence of different wheelchair tilt-in-space and reclining angles on pressure force and shear force in the gluteal region. We included 12 healthy subjects in this study. To measure the amount of pressure force and shear force applied to the gluteal region while sitting, a force plate was used to measure the floor reaction force. Protocols for six wheelchair tilt-in-space and reclining angles, including 0°reclining and 0°tilt-in-space (r0t0), 10°reclining (r10) and 20°reclining (r20), and 10°tilt-in-space (t 10) and 20°tilt-in-space (t20), were randomly assigned to the 12 subjects. The pressure force in the r10, r20, r30, and t20 conditions was significantly lower than that in the r0t0 condition. The pressure force in the r20 and r30 conditions was significantly lower than that in the t20 condition. The anterior component of the shear force in the r0t0 condition was significantly lower than that in the r10, r20, and r30 conditions and significantly higher than that in the t10 and t20 conditions. The posterior component of the shear force in the t20 condition was significantly higher than that in the t10 condition (p < 0.05). The results of the present study indicate that reclining angles decrease the pressure force and 10°tilt-in-space angles decrease the shear force in the gluteal region while sitting on a wheelchair.
[Purpose] This study investigated the sexual differences and relationship between body flexibility and joint laxity. [Subjects and methods] The subjects were 42 healthy people (28 males, 14 females) who were second-year students at a university. We evaluated the body flexibility and the joint laxity score. The evaluation of the body flexibility was performing using the Finger-Tip of toes-Distance (FTD), Finger-Floor-Distance (FFD), Knee-Floor- Distance (KFD) and Middle finger-Middle finger-Distance (MMD). [Results] We compared the measured values of the body flexibility and the jointlaxityscore between males and females, and recognized sexual-associated differencesinthejointlaxity scores. We then analyzed the relationship between the joint laxity score and body flexibility, but there were no measurement items with regard to the body flexibility which showed a significant relationship with the joint laxity score. However, between the measurement items of body flexibility, a very strong correlation was shown between the FTD and FFD, and a weak correlation was shown between the FFD and KFD. [Conclusion] Our findings suggested that female joint laxity is higher compared with that in males. The present findings indicated that the body flexibility indices and joint laxity indices were not related.
[Purpose] We analyzed the effect of the stretch exercise using the half-cut(HC) pole on the patients of thoracic surgery. [Subjects] The subjects were 25 patients (male: 16, female: 9, mean age: 73.8 ys) who underwent the lobectomy or pulmonary segmental resection with video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). [Methods] After operation, patients exercised by the Sylvester method and the twister exercise using HC pole. The effect of HC pole exercise was evaluated with 1) thorax expansion (upper, middle and lower levels of thorax), 2) respiratory function, 3) selfevaluation of deep breathing before operation, and pre-and post-exercise after operation. [Results] After operation, the thorax expansion of each part significantly decreased compared with pre-operation (p<0.05). The thorax expansion in upper level significantly improved after HC pole exercise (p<0.05), but the improvement of thorax expansioninmiddle and lower level was not recognized. The respiratory function did not change significantly, but the self-evaluation of deep breathing improved after HC pole exercise. [Conclusion] It was suggested that HC pole exercise improved the thorax mobility.
This study examined the daily activity levels of 38 middle-aged females, using Lifecorder and fitness diaries. In fitness diaries, activities were divided into <exercise> and <activities of daily living> and recorded, with their contents and durations. On comparison between the physical activity levels recorded by Lifecorder and those subjectively reported in fitness diaries, the two were not in agreement. The subjectively reported levels of <activities of daily living> were recorded more than <exercise> (p<0.01). Furthermore, those overestimating their subjective activity levels were frequently diagnosed with obesity based on their BMI (p<0.05). I think the device which can continue a record needs fitness diaries with the feeling of achievement and satisfaction.