[Purpose] This study aims to clarify the association between exercise and depression among older adults living alone, focusing on their living arrangements and exercise fellow (non-exercisers, those who exercise alone, and those who exercise with others). [Subjests] The subjects were 8,870 community-dwelling older adults who did not require nursing care. [Methods] Self-administered questionnaires were used to evaluate living arrangements and exercise fellow in an exercise routine. Depressive status was evaluated using the Kihon Checklist. [Results] Among those who lived alone, the odds ratios for depression were significantly lower among those who exercised alone or with others compared to non-exercisers. However, there was no significant difference between the former two groups. [Conclusion] Regardless of the number of people involved in the exercise, exercise routines among those who live alone are associated with good mental health. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an environment where those who live alone can exercise.
The purpose of this study was to clarify quantitative and qualitative differences in trunk muscles due to the difference in the independence of sitting upmotion.The subject was over 65 years male patient who was hospitalized with aspiration pneumonia at was bedridden. It was compared with the partial assistance group and whole assistance group due to difference in independence of sitting up motion. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the muscle was measured using the CT image of the trunk muscle. In addition,the area based on the CT value of the muscle or fat in the measured CSA was measured as %FCSA and %IMF. The result of the whole assistance group compared with the partial assistance group, there was a significant decrease in erector spinae muscle CSA. In % FCSA, there was a significant lower of the abdominal oblique muscle group, quadratus lumborum muscle, the multifidus muscle, and the erector spinae muscle. In %IMF, there was a significant higher in all muscles except for the rectus abdominis muscle. Based on the results, the qualitative difference in the trunk muscles of the whole assistance group compared with the partial assistance group showed the possibility of being related to the independence of sitting up motion.
To examine elderly personsʼability to adjust their walking speed, we asked our subjects adopted 3 different walking speeds: normal, slightly fast, and at their maximum speed. The relationships among their ability to adjust their walking speed and physical, attention, cognitive functions were analyzed, dividing the subjects into 2 groups: favorable adjustment: the speed increased as they walk as normal, slightly fast, and at their maximum speed, in this order; and poor adjustment: the speed when walking slightly fast was slower than that when walking as normal or faster than that when walking at the maximum speed. Among the 127 elderly persons, 50 (39.4%) were unable to adjust their walking speed to walk slightly fast. Compared those with poor adjustment, elderly persons with favorable adjustment showed markedly more favorable values when walking slightly fast and at their maximum speed. As there were no significant differences between the groups in physical, attention, or cognitive functions, it may have been difficult for elderly persons with poor adjustment to sufficiently use their functions to adjust their walking speed.
The present study aims to determine the physical and psychological factorsassociated with low back pain in community-dwelling elderly women who participated in back school. A total of 71 elderly women were enrolled in this study (mean age, 73.2 years;standard deviation, 6.0). We assessed their physical and psychological functions. After classifying the subjects as per the presence or absence of pain, we compare the two groups and multiple logistic regression analysis to clarify the factors related to low back pain. The inter-group comparison showed that the group with low back pain had significantly higher body weight, body mass index, fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FABQ) score, and pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) score. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that FABQ and PCS was associated with low back pain. Moreover, multiple logistic regression analysis involving the lower items of PCS showed that low back pain dependedonthe FABQ score and the rumination of the PCS score. We recommend that psychological factors be considered when assessing elderly woman with low back pain.
This study aimed to verify the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and four indices (anterior femoral muscle/fat thickness, femoral circumference,and anterior femoral muscle hardness) among the elderly with care needs. The following indices were assessed among 60 elderly individuals with care needs (23 males, 80.1±7.9 years, 37 females, 82.6±4.9 years, total:120 bilateral lower limbs): quadriceps muscle strength, anterior femoral muscle/fat thickness, femoral circumference, and anterior femoral muscle hardness. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that quadriceps muscle strength was significantly correlated with femoral circumference in males and femoral muscle thickness (p<0.05 for both) in females. These results suggest that the femoral circumference in males and the femoral muscle thickness in females reflect the quadriceps muscle strength among the elderly with care needs.
To clarify how an elevation of the head and/or back of the bed affects blood pressure fluctuation, we measured the change in blood pressure at different degrees of headrest and backrest elevation. Randomized crossover trial was conducted with 9 healthy volunteers. Blood pressure (BP) was continuously monitored via a cuff attached to the middle finger of the right hand. BP was measured in the following 3 positions: ①headrest elevation of 0°and backrest elevation of 30°, ②headrest elevation of 20°and backrest elevation of 30°,and③headrest elevation of 0°and backrest elevation of 50°.Atany position, temporary blood pressure reduction was observed. Furthermore, the change in BP was much greater during backrest elevation of 50°than during backrest elevation of 30°. On the other hand, headrest elevation of 20°did not affect blood pressure fluctuation. These results suggested that the degree of backrest elevation affects blood pressure fluctuation.
This study investigated the incidence of frailty and sarcopenia in participants in a year-round care prevention program and examined the factors related to prefrailty. There were 114 participants (82 women and 32 men) who were registered in the care prevention program held by the city of Ibaraki. Care prevention program participation status,physical function, muscle mass, and higher living functions were investigated and evaluation of sarcopenia frailty was carried out. Furthermore, factors relatedtoprefrailtywere analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The survey results showed prefrailty in 39.4%,frailty in 0.8%, presarcopenia in 31.5%, and sarcopenia in 4.3% of participants. Logistic regression analysis showed that life management score which is the lower area of the Japan Science and Technology Agency Index of Competence, and hospital history in the past year were the factors most related to prefrailty. In conclusion, participants in the yearround care prevention program had a low incidence of frailty and sarcopenia. The results suggest that prefrailty prevention efforts should be focused on health condition and life management ability.