We analyzed the activities of the hip muscles during hip abduction in flexion. The subjects were 15 adult males, and the evaluated muscles were the tensor fasciae latae,gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and sartorius muscles. Integrated electromyograms during hip abduction in flexion normalized by those during maximum force exertion of each muscle were used as a parameter of muscle activity during hip abductioninflexion. The activity of each muscle during hip abduction in flexion with maximum efforts was from about half to similar to that during maximum muscle force exertion. Analysis of the association between muscle strength during hip abduction in flexion and muscle activity showed that the activity of each muscle increased with muscle strength during hip abduction in flexion. These results suggest that the tensor fasciae latae, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and sartorius muscles are involved in muscle strength during hip abduction in flexion, and muscle strength during hip abduction in flexion can be a parameter of the sum strength of the hip muscles.
Objective: This study evaluated the effects of implementing a program that used go out records to improvement of go out and physical activity among community-dwelling elderly individuals. Subjects: Community-dwelling elderly individuals who participated in long-term care prevention classes were divided into control (n=45) and intervention (n=22) groups. Methods: The intervention group underwent a program including self-monitoring, which used go out records, and interaction with supporters, which comprised dialogue with the supporters, in addition to the control group program. Assessment items including frequency of going outside, physical function, including quantity of physical activity, psychological evaluations, and changes before and after the intervention were evaluated. Results: The duration of frequency of going outside physical activity improvedintheintervention group by the end of the program. In addition, a significant interaction between Sedentary Behavior and Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity durations was observed. Conclusion: Interventions using go out records may increase the frequency of outings and the amount of physical activity.
[Purpose]Toe pressure strength when standing was measured, and the reliability and validity of this value were examined. [Subjects and Methods] Measurement was performed in 78 care-dependent elderly people (age:82±7) using outpatient rehabilitation services. In addition to their toe pressure strength when standing, various body functions were measured. [Results]The pressure strengths of toes on left and right feet when standing were ICC=0.78 (95% CI:0.67 to 0.85) and 0.85 (0.77 to 0.90), respectively. The validity of these values were confirmed by calculating correlation coefficients. In both cases, there were significant correlations with the hand grip strength, knee extensor strength, ankle plantar flexor strength, ankle dorsiflexor strength, and skeletal muscle mass. The total toe pressure strength when standing was also significantly correlated with these parameters. [Conclusions]The toe pressure strength when standing was sufficiently reliable on both sides. The results also support its applicability as a muscle strength index for the caredependent elderly.
To determine an appropriate method to measure gait speed in patients with Parkinsonʼs disease (PD), the maximum, normal, and slow gait speeds of 14 PDpatients(6 males, 8 females, 71.3±6.1 years), who were able to walk independently and living at home,were measured, and their relationships with various balance test results and the skeletal muscle volume were analyzed. Normal gait speed was only significantly correlated with the Timed up & go test (TUG) score, whereas maximum gait speed was significantly correlated with the height, and TUG and Functional reach test (FRT) scores. Slow gait speed was significantly correlated with skeletal, upper/lower limb, and trunk muscle volumes. Furthermore, the difference between the maximum and slow gait speeds was significantly correlated with height, skeletal, upper/lower limb, and trunk muscle volumes, and TUG and FRT scores. The results highlight the importance of assessing gait at low speeds, in addition to maximum speeds, rather than normal speeds, in PD patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the thicknesses of the rotator cuff muscles in baseball players using ultrasound images. [Subjects] Thirty male (60 arms) with at least 3 years of hardball baseball club experience in high school and at least 5 years of baseball club experience were recruited. [Method] Participants responded to a questionnaire and underwent rotator cuff muscle thickness (throwing side and non-throwing side) measures using ultrasound images. [Results] Comparison of rotator cuff muscle thicknesses on the throwing and non-throwing sides revealed that the infraspinatus muscle was significantly thinner on the throwing side and the subscapularis muscle was significantly thicker on the throwing side. Comparisons of patients with and without medical histories related to the throwing shoulder revealed that, in the no throwing shoulder-related medical history group, there were no significant differences in position history or muscle thickness. However, these individuals were significantly more likely to have played as fielders. In contrast, the group with throwing shoulder-related medical histories included significantly pitchers and catchers. Multiple regression analysis of muscle thickness as the dependent variable and height, weight, years of experience, position history, and throwing shoulder-related medical history as independent variables revealed that infraspinatus and teres minor muscle thicknesses were negatively correlated with years of experience. [Conclusion] In baseball players with 5 years of baseball club experience, the infraspinatus muscle was thinner, and the subscapularis muscle was thicker, on the throwing side. Participants with no throwing shoulder-related medical histories were significantly more likely to play as fielders, whereas those with throwing shoulder-related medical histories were more likely to play as pitchers or catchers. Our results suggested that years of experience affect infraspinatus and teres minor muscle thicknesses.
The physical functions, body composition, and cognitive/mental functions of 245 (50 males and 195 females) community-dwelling elderly people participating in a physical fitness measurement program were examined, focusing on social withdrawal. Among males, the TUG score and walking speed were significantly higher in the non-social than in social withdrawal group (p<0.05). As for body composition, the non-social withdrawal groupʼs values, representing their muscle mass, body water, protein, and bone mineral contents, and basal metabolism, were more favorable than those of the social withdrawal group (p<0.05). Conversely, the number of those with depressive tendencies was significantly larger in the social withdrawal than non-social withdrawal group. On comparing physical functions among females, the non-social withdrawal groupʼs handgripstrength level, TUG score, and walking speed were higher than those of the social withdrawal group (p<0.05). However, unlike in the case of males, neither the body composition nor psychophysiological functions significantly varied between the 2 groups, revealing sex differences in the impact of social withdrawal.
[Purpose] The purpose of the study was to elucidate differences in open-close stepping test on conducting repeated tasks in middle-aged, early-stage elderly, and latestage elderly subjects. [Methods] The subjects were 45 outpatients who attended an outpatient rehabilitation department for orthopedic disease of upper limbs (male 10, female 35,mean, age 68.6 ± 27.7 years, height 156.1 ± 38.9 cm, weight 56.0 ± 26.3 kg, BMI 22.8 ± 9.1). The subjects were divided into middle-aged (15 subjects with 45 to 64 years), early-stage elderly (15, 65 to 74 years), and late-stage elderly (15, 75 years or older) groups. The lowerlimb agility in each age group was evaluated and compared by counting the number of repeated open-close stepping test performed within a specified time period. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance, followed by multiple comparison using the Bonferroni post-hoc test. [Results] The mean numbers of abductions/adductions were 18.0 ± 2.5, 16.5 ± 2.4, and 15.0 ± 2.1 in the middle-aged, early-stage elderly, and late-stage elderly groups, respectively. The number of repeating in the late-stage elderly group was significantly lower than that in the middle-aged group. There were no significant differences in numbers on other comparisons. [Conclusion] It was confirmed that,compared with middle-aged people, late-stage elderly people show reduced open-close stepping test.