International standardization has not meant technical standards: it means change of industry structure into business ecosystem and then change of competition rule. A mechanism of the change is described comparing digital TV and LED lightning on the bases of product design rule and of product architecture. Both design of business boundary between firm and market, and design of intellectual property management in the open business ecosystem, are key issues for competitive advantage of firms in global market.
LEDs, fluorescent lamps, halogen incandescent lamps and high intensity discharge lamps together with the interface to corresponding controlgear, cap?lampholder fit and luminaire determine the work program of IEC SC 34A. Most urgent, the application of LED products for general lighting requires a standardized backbone. This is provided by IEC TC 34, its sub-committees and several panels. All elements of the chain are concerned: the simplest form of a light source (LED package), the LED lamp and LED modules, the LED controlgear and the LED luminaire. The first generation of these LED products imitates existing lighting solutions, but new developments take better care of what LED really can do. Across all LED products, testing of lifetime against manufacturers' claims, reduction of testing time, choice of preferred chromaticity coordinates, tolerance areas of chromaticity coordinates, definition of colour space, definition of colour rendering, shortening of stabilization procedure, statistical requirements and minimization of repetitive work for luminaire manufacturers are unsolved tasks or improvable. It is imperative that all concerned parties of industry, testhouses and laboratories work together in standardization to make LED lighting a success story.
In Japan, standardization activity on LED lighting is carried out lively. In this report, the standardization system of Japan in the field of illumination is given. Electrical Appliance and Material Safety Law as compulsory law, Japanese Industrial Standards as central system of standardization and documents by industrial associations are introduced.
Recent growth of global attention to energy saving promotes rapid spread of LEDs for lighting such as LED lamps or LED luminaires in the market. Accurate and recognized photometric measurements for SSLs are indispensable to ensure the reliability of the LEDs that would make them be more common. In this article, recent topic, trend and future prospect about the international standardization of LED photometry is reviewed mainly from the activity in the CIE.
As the CIE Color Rendering Method (CIE Pub.13.3-1995) can apply only to fluorescent lamps, the color rendering indices of LED light sources cannot be calculated on the definition of the CIE color rendering specification. CIE TC1-69 was established to investigate new methods for assessing the color rendition properties of white-light sources used for illumination including solid-state light sources, with the goal of recommending new assessment procedures. This paper outlined the activities of TC1-69 and of the domestic Technical Committee of JCIE (Japanese National Committee of the CIE) corresponding to TC1-69.
As the fundamental knowledge of the Glare Rating, this article explains the distinction of disability glare and discomfort glare, the distinction of contrast effect and total effect on the glare, and the relation between adaptation and glare sensation. With that in mind, glare rating method used in every lighting field is introduced and classified. The foveal and peripheral vision, and its spectral sensitivity characteristics are pointed out as the issue of glare rating method. In the international standardization of glare rating system for the LED lighting era, the way of it and its evaluation standard are shown.
As LEDs have been high efficient and low cost, LEDs are disseminated rapidly by replacing conventional light sources. In these conditions, many companies come newly into lighting businesses over the world as well as in Japan. As lighting business is globalized and borderless, standardization activities become important. This describes standardization activities taken by the Illuminating Engineering Institute of Japan.