Previous studies have reported that the use of light is effective for fishing, and specific wavelength light and aquarium colors are effe ctive for control maturity, growth and survival of fish. Thus, the use of light in fishing and aquaculture has a long history. In the current study, we reviewed previous findings regarding the relationship between fish visual function, the ocean light environment, and responses of fish to light. We examined the effects and problems associat ed with the impacts of artificial light on fish behavior. The findings highlight the importance of understanding the ecology of adult fish during development from larvae, as well as visual func tion, behavioral responses to light, and physiological responses of fish at each developmental stage. Clarifying these issues is necessary for elucidating the most effective light conditions for fishery, seed production and aquaculture.