In this paper, we overview the development of Land Remote Sensing in the U.S. and Europe, and its historical/strategic significance from the 1950's to 2000, dividing the 40 years into the 4 phases : 'the development in military technology', 'the rise in its civilian utilization', 'the trial for commercialization', and 'the competition in space industry'.
Future direction of the development on satellite data utilization system from user-oriented point of view is figured out, considering the foreseeing trend on space and ground segments which are rapidly growing up year by year. New generation of Internet and World Wide Web will extremely affect a interactive function between users and the future system. The generation of value-added and higher-level satellite data products, which will be required by wide variety of science communities, will be a most complicated function in the development of the future system. The next-generation satellite data system, integrating satellite data products with geo-spatial scientific and socio-economic data and providing new information to the public, will be a core system in the digital society.
The sink related articles (3.3 and 3.4) of the Kyoto Protocol allow countries to use carbon sink activities to achieve the emission reduction targets during the first commitment period (2008-2012). The definition and accounting option on the eligible sink activities will be determined based on the political decisions taken at COP 6 and after regarding "Afforestation, Reforestation, Deforestation", "carbon stock change" and "additional human induced activities" in the Kyoto Protocol. In this report, we first summarize the latest scientific and political discussion on the issues based on the latest studies on activity estimates of the activity potential in the IPCC special report : Land-Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry. Then, we discuss about the possible roles of the remote sensing approaches for monitoring and verifying the sink activities during the 1st commitment period.
Agricultural information is consisted with six items of sub-information. They are agricultural management, agricultural statistics, agricultural environments, agricultural developments, agricultural resources, and agricultural disasters. Each sub-information has individual characteristics, and the characteristics are described. The relationships between agricultural sub-information and suitable remote sensing data are examined. At last, necessary conditions for actual using of remote sensing are examined.
Remote sensing for numerical weather prediction use is presented. First, a brief explanation of numerical weather prediction is given. Second, instruments for in situ meteorological observations are outlined. Third, remote sensing techniques from ground and space for meteorological observations are discussed. Finally, assimilation of remote sensing data to numerical weather prediction model is presented.
Inspired by Apollo projects, spacecraft explorations to various planetary bodies started. Those targets included not only inner planets but also outer planets and their satellites. Planetary remote sensing is different from that for the Earth in some points. Planetary surface is covered with regolith, fine soil-like fragments from impact ejecta. The regolith surfaces of airless bodies suffer from so-called space weathering. It is difficult to obtain ground truth data on planetary explorations. Several works on planetary geology are introduced : ancient fluidal activities on Mars and its relation with ancient climate, stress history on Venus' surface from dike orientations, spectroscopic studies of lunar mare, surface of icy satellites, and surface of asteroid Eros. A couple of innovative methods, global radar soundings and ultraviolet spectroscopy, are introduced.