The intermittent warm ocean water intrusion into Kagoshima bay is well known as Kyucho phenomenon. We first visualize these phenomena in winter using the satellite thermal infrared images and examine some specifications, especially the distribution patterns, of the intrusion. Then the numerical analysis using a multi-leveled finite difference method is performed for the purpose to investigate the phenomena. It is found from the numerical analysis : (1) The intrusion occurs when the warm water comes into touch with the bay water at the mouth of the bay. (2) The calculated velocity of the warm water intrusion is the same order to the ones estimated by the satellite images. (3) The role of the initial velocity is to increase the intrusion speed. (4) The intrusion speed also increases with the temperature and the thickness of the ocean water. (5) The sea surface wind changes the warm water distribution pattern in the bay. The effects of the warm water contact period at the mouth of the bay and the two successive intrusions are also investigated.
Previously unknown subsurface remains considered to be the Egyptian New Kingdom period were detected in the desert of western Saqqara by the utilization of JERS-1/SAR. A joint research team of Tokai University and Waseda University has been carrying out archaeological investigations using remote sensing technology to establish a new method of detecting remains. In 1995, the first preliminary survey of this study using Landsat/TM, SPOT/ Panchromatic, and JERS-1/SAR was done in the desert of Memphite necropolis, and remains covered with thin sand layer were pinpointed by the image interpretation of JERS-1/SAR. It is commonly called Site No. 29, and the surface features and backscattering coefficients at the site suggest us the existence of subsurface structures of the dynastic period. The detection of the Site No. 29 is extremely noteworthy, because there are some papers describing about subsurface imaging ability of L band SAR in the desert of hyperarid regions, but there is no example that subsurface remains of the dynastic period were actually detected by JERS-1/SAR in Egypt. This is the latest report studying about the relationship between JERS-1/SAR and the Site No. 29.
Response of vegetation to E1 Nino o is said to be typically strong in the South East Asia. We studied this tendency in Indian China Peninsula by using 20 years of NOAA/AVHRR Pathfinder monthly 8 km composite data along with rainfall, Niiio3 SST anomaly (index of El Niiio), and DMI (index of Dipole Mode Event;DME). Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was low and surface temperature (Ts) was high in the period of El Nino and DME, probably mainly because of shortage of rainfall. We found strong correlations between NDVI and those indices in the tropical rain forest along the Mekong river basin in Laos and Cambodia, whereas the coastal area showed relatively weak correlation. Seasonal behavior of NDVI and Ts was different from site to site. It implied that type of vegetation and land management can influence on response of terrestrial ecosystem to these climate changes in this tropical region.
The TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) observatory has been observing global rainfalls since December 1997. NASA and JAXA once decided in June 2004 to terminate the operation of the TRMM and to perform the controlled re-entry in the very near future. However, NASA and JAXA notified TRMM science teams of both USA and Japan to extend the mission of the TRMM without performing the controlled re-entry on 30 September, 2005. It is expected that TRMM will be able to continue to observe tropical rainfall until September 2009, with possible additional extension after another senior review, allowing for a possible overlap with GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) mission. The present status of the TRMM observatory is introduced.