The linear pattern of a satellite MSS image is not so same as the linear topographic feature on surface landform, though the linear feature is reflected in the linear pattern of image. It is proposed that the pixels relation, a new concept, is to extract the linear pattern of image corresponding to the resolution of the satellite MSS image, and is a relationship between each pixel. 5 types of pixels relation are considered ; 1 : line reflecting of shore line, ranging hill, and valley, 2 : bright or dark line, or parallel line of dark and bright ones, 3: line linking elbows of zigzaging lines of 1 or 2, 4 : line linking isolated points and continual lines of 1 or 2, 5 : line with large width. The lines of 1 and 2 are uniquely defined only in the image with the high reproducibility. The significance of the linear pattern of image is divided into 6 classes as follows; artificial structure; the boundary between water, land, and ice; the boundary of rock facies; the line of ranging hill and valley; other geologic structure; and noise of image. South Kyushu is selected as a model field to observe the linear pattern of satellite MSS image with digital image processings. Being verified by SLAR image, air photos, geomorphological map and field surveys, the major linear topographic features on the surface are reflected in the most linear patterns of image. The major structures of pre-Neogene basements are well reflected in the linear pattern of image. It is newly suggested that a polygonal linear pattern of image indicates a cauldron of an igneous intrusion with a volcanic depression.
The Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) is used to measure temperature and winds in the lower atmosphere. RASS is the first and the only remote temperature profile measuring system with a considerably fine resolution in temperature and altitude. The technique used for these measurements is Doppler tracking of short, strong acoustic pulse with a CW radar. The radio waves reflected from acoustic wavefronts produce a relatively small spot on the ground by the focusing effect of the spherical wavefronts. The wind profile can be measured by tracking the motion of the spot of the radio echo with a receiving antenna network and receivers. Further, the temperature profile can be measured from altitude distribution of the sound velocity which is obtained from the Doppler shift frequency of the radio echo. This report reviews an outline of the RASS operation (Chap. 2), recent development of RASS and the relevant observational results in Japan (Chap.3) and the brief summary of experimental studies on RASS in the world (Chap. 4).
The earthquake 'Nagano - ken Seibu Jisin' which struck at about 8 : 48 a.m. on 14 September 1984, triggered landslides on the hillside of Mt. Ontake. This report dercribes a method to make a montage photograph expressing the landslide condition in the early age. A cloud free Landsat MSS data obtained before the landslides is chosen as a base image for the montage photograph. Also, an early information about the location of the landslides is collected by means of aerial photography and ground observation carried out by the reporters of the Japan Broadcasting Corporation. Above two kinds of landslide information are superimposed digitally into the above Landsat image to manufacuture a montage photograph of the landslide condition. This montage imagery is further transformed to a 3D expression using the high resolution digital terrain model of the area. Compared with the Landsat MSS image taken after the earthquake, these montage photographs have following advantages; (1) Whole view of the landslides in the montage is almost same as the actual condition, though uncertain information about the landslides could be involved in it. (2) Accuracy of landslide location indicated on the montage depends upon the accuracy of the early information by aerial or ground observation. A landslide shown at upper - left side of the montage did not occure in actual. The other landslides in the area are likely same as the actual ones seen on the Landsat MSS image obtained after the earthquake on 23 September 1984. (3) 3D expression of the montage image may inform us more effectively the landslide condition with the aspect of the topography. Montage image manufactured by this method will be usefull when we meet some cases like this, in which the whole image of the disaster needs to be known in the early age.