A procedure of computing the radiance and the polarization parameters of radiation diffusely reflected by an inhomogeneous, plane-parallel terrestrial atmosphere bounded by a ruffled ocean surface is discussed with the aid of the doubling-adding method. If the atmosphere and the ocean are simulated by a number of homogeneous sublayers, the matrices of radiation reflected diffusely by the atmosphere-ocean system can be expressed in terms of the reflection and the transmission matrices of radiation of these sublayers by using a single iterative equation in which the polarity effect of radiation is included. The ruffled ocean surface can be treated as an interacting interface, where the transmitted radiation from below the ocean surface into the atmosphere is also taken into the derivation of equation. Finally, the computational accuracy is discussed, in addition to some approximate procedure to minimize the computational time. This computational procedure can be used for an effective data analysis in the visible and the adjacent regions. Furthermore it is utilized for developing the most efficient remote sensing system by satellites in future.
A method of deriving the sea surface temperature(SST) from space is described by using the infrared channels of NOAA-AVHRR radiometer with reference to model atmosphere-ocean system. It was found that in free of stratospheric aerosols, the combined use of channels 3, 4 and 5 is effective for the SST derivation for the moderate amount of precipitable water. Furthermore, off the sunglint at channel 3, temperature deviation dose not depend upon surface wind, but depend only upon the total amount of water vapor and aerosols. Therefore off the sunglint it can be analyzed in a manner similar to the night case. In case of large amount of water vapor, its vertical profile has to be simultaneously determined. Furthermore, it was found that the combined use of spectral bands of 3.7, 6, 11 and 12um enhance the accuracy on the SST measurement technique. The volcanic eruption of El Chichon on April, 1982 has resulted in a marked effect on radiative transfer in the atmosphere. Thus the enhancement of the stratopheric aerosols has resulted the atmospheric correction on SST more difficult. At the present work, the effect of stratospheric aerosols on SST was examined numerically. A combined use of visible and infrared channels could be useful for this analysis.
This paper proposes a method of extracting landcover information of administrative districts in a prefecture by use of Landsat MSS data, and examines the applicability of its information to the statistical land-use surveys. The method is supported by the system which is composed of a personal computer and a large computer. Errors of geometrical correction in the resampling of twelve combined Landsat MSS data are investigated. The land-cover information is extracted by a classification methdd on the basis of statistical verification. Fast Fourier Transform is applied in order to remove the effect of the clouds on the land-cover classification. For the purpose of correcting the fluctuation of classification results, a method is proposed, which is based on the judgement of the change of land-cover pattern in the area divided into cell. The land-covers of classes "Paddy field", "Forest" and "Urban area" of the administrative districts are extracted from the Landsat MSS data in time-series and compared with the results of existing surveys. The results show that the estimates derived from the Landsat MSS data approximately correspond to those of exisiting surveys as a whole, and suggest that the remote sensing technique by use of the Landsat is available to the land-use surveys in a large area.
TM imageries of Landsat 5 in the area of the submarine volcano was received by NASDA of Japan, on Jan. 21, three days after the eruption. Using the data, the authors promptly conducted following analyses. Location and size of new island were measured. Temperatures of some objects were calculated from the values of Band-6 and as a result altitude of the volcanic smoke was estimated. In the process of classification of the objective area, they were found that volcanic smoke was distinguishable from cloud by Band-7 and that the distribution of floating volcanic products presented the slick phenomena of seawater.