This paper describes a method for obtaining an earth surface temperature map from the thermal IR data of NOAA-6/AVHRR, and discusses two examples from the Kansai and Chubu districts of Japan from the view point of seasonal and geographical characteristics. Geometrical transformation of raw AVHRR data into a 1: 1, 000, 000 scaled map of the Geographical Survey Institute, was performed in a limited area, through both tangent and projective transformations. Geometrical accuracy verified at 14 ground control points in the area was found about 1.2 pixels in standard deviation. On the other hand, earth surface temperature measures were obtained through two stages. Namely, the brightness temperature from AVHRR counts was converted into the normal earth temperature through compensation for atmospheric effects, and checked at two ground points. Estimation errors were found approximately ±2.0° K both on the sea surface and on the top of snow capped mountains. Finally seasonal and geographical characteristics of earth surface temperatures are discussed as follows: 1. On the opposite side of the mountain, there is revealed a distinct difference of earth surface temperature due to received sunlight. 2. The increase of earth surface temperature in urbanized ares seems to depend upon spectral characteristics relating to radiation balance on the surface. 3. Water temperature in winter depends clearly upon the water depth. 4. At some portions of mountain sides, an anormalous hot temperature was detected. This phenomenon seems to be a sort of local Phene.