The aim of this study is thermal environment mitigation effect in summer by sheet planting on metallic roof of factories or similar buildings to use Zoysia, Sedum and Lippia as test plant. We compared surface temperature of planted roof to bare metallic roof. The analysis period was from Jul 1st to Sept 5th in 2008, and we picked up 24 days which were maximum temperature over 30 degrees C and hours of sunlight was over 6 hours. As a result, the surface of bare metallic roof had 2 days with temperature over 80ºC, but Zoysia area had 7 days with over 50ºC, Sedum area had 6 days with temperature over 40ºC. And Lippia area has 6 days with temperature over 40ºC. The surface of bare metallic roof was maximum temperature date 83.9ºC. The surface of the Zoysia area was maximum temperature date 52.6ºC, The surface of the Lippia area was maximum temperature 41.9ºC, The surface of the Sedum area was maximum temperature 41.1ºC in daytime. Therefore the planted was effective Zoysia area 31.3ºC, Therefore the planted was effective Lippia area 42.0ºC, therefore the planted was effective Sedum area 42.8ºC. It was seen effected to reduce temperature of surface sheet planting metallic roof. Therefore, the sheet planting on Factories’ metallic roof or similar buildings expected thermal environment mitigation effect.
Continuing to carry out expansion development of the school outdoor playground maintenance by grass is predicted. It surveyed that changes of a social situation and the result of the academic investigation research on the development management engineering of the lawn ground participated in the background of the 2nd term expansion progressive era greatly etc. Moreover, the premises-of-a-school area which per juvenile student can use from the scale of a national country public private school was computed. As a result, 38.26 m2/man in the elementary school, and the 56.01 m2/man in junior high school, and 78.23 m2/man in the high school, in the national average. However, the area of a passage, a natural observation garden, etc. is included by this area. Therefore, it is predicted that the area which a juvenile student can use becomes less than it. Moreover, it has checked that the area in the public school in Tokyo decreased by about 50% as compared with the national average. It surveyed that there was a big gap according to location environment or school scale in the school located in a metropolitan area, and the other school. We checked that outdoor playground maintenance using turfgrass was carried out in such school environment. It turned out that the turf maintenance rate of the outdoor playground in public schools all over the country is rising in four years in 2004 to 2007. The turf maintenance rate has checked that went up to 3.30% in 2004, 3.51% in 2005, 3.72% in 2007, and 4.13% in 2007. Moreover, the items of the turf maintenance rate in 2007 were 3.85% of elementary schools, 3.4% of junior high schools, and 7.65% of high schools.
One hundred forty-six clones of creeping bentgrass were originally selected among disease resistance, insect resistance, low anthocyanin appearance during winter periods and heavy summer heat stress based on pesticide-free conditions. Nine parental clones were finally selected from the 146 primarily selected clones based on resistance to two major diseases, dollar spot disease (Sclerotinia homoeocarpa) and brown patch (Rhizoctonia solani). There were also selected based on low anthocyanin appearances during winter periods. One other clone, previously selected for its resistance to these diseases and low anthocyanin appearance, was added to 9 clones to create 3 polycross groups for breeding. The degree of resistance to the major two diseases and levels of anthocyanin appearance were examined in experimental polycross group cultivars CY-I, II, and III. Each group consisted of 5 or 6 parental clones according to the turf characteristics. In comparison to existing cultivars, L-93, PennA-1, PennA-4, Putter, and Penncross, resistance to these diseases in the experimental polycross groups were higher, and anthocyanin appearance during winter periods in the experimental polycross groups were lower, respectively. CY-2, consisting of 6 clones of CY-II and one clone of CY-III, was evaluated to be the best new bred cultivar in total performance in regards to low susceptibility to the major two diseases, low anthocyanin appearance.
We measured the density (D) and lengths of foliar stomata (Ls) and guard cells (Lg) of the creeping bentgrass (A. stolonifera) var. Penncross by the autofluorescence observation method. Based on D, Ls, and Lg, we calculated the maximum stomatal conductance to CO2 (gcmax). The upper (adaxial) side D of leaf blade (width≥1 mm) were 170–194 count mm−2, significantly greater than the lower (abaxial) 78–116 count mm−2 (p<0.01 or p<0.001). The upper gcmax was 0.416–0.616 mol m−2 S−1, two times larger than the lower 0.197–0.314 mol m−2 S−1. These results suggest the upper side of Penncross foliage has higher absorptivity of CO2 and foliar fertilizers than the lower.