Whether the number of patients with hyperuricemia or gout has continued to increase in Japan since 2000was investigated by reviewing the results of comprehensive medical examinations conducted in Tokyo and the results of a patient survey conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan. According to the 2001 National Livelihood Survey encompassing the entire population, the number of gout patients was estimated at 696,000, but the number of newly affected male patients decreased. Further, according to a survey of medical institutions, the number of gout patients peaked at 14,200 in 1996and decreased to 11,000 in 2002. Regarding the frequency of hyperuricemia in men, on a comparison of health screenings conducted in 1999 and 2003 at the Itabashi Chuo Medical Examination Center, the frequency of serum uric acid level≥7.0mg/dl decreased from 22.6% to 21.5%, and the frequency of hyperuricemia was decreased in all age groups except for men in their 20's. Men in their 30's-50's are most likely to be affected by life habits. On a comparison of health screenings conducted in 1995 at Tokyo Jikei Hospital, the frequency of hyperuricemia had decreased slightly to 20.9% in 2003. However, the frequency of complications such as obesity, abnormal glucose tolerance and hypertension increased, suggesting that decreases in hyperuricemia after 2000may be concealed by the increased numbers of diabetes patients as the frequency of obesity continues to rise.