Fuel-saving technologies, such as renewable fuels, vehicles with lighter materials and hybrid engines, can significantly curtail fossil resource consumption. Because petroleum products are coproduced from refineries, large-scale reduction in part of the coproducts can simply result in its surplus, inducing consequential changes in the current process inventory. Evaluation of technologies without consideration on such changes might result in significant errors. In this study, various market-driven consequences on inventories are discussed using a simplified model. Adjustability of output from the refinery, capacity and efficiency for conversion of petrochemical products are discussed with a scenario of large-scale gasoline reduction. A model for consequential material flow analysis for petrochemical products will facilitate design of future energy visions and scenarios with various fuel-saving technologies.
In our past studies, it is clarified that the life cycle CO2 (LCCO2) of photovoltaic strongly depends on the location at each stage. Therefore, it is important to understand what supply chain is optimum to reduce LCCO2 from global point of view. In this study, we demonstrate some numerical techniques to investigate the optimum supply chain of photovoltaic. Network modeling is used to find out the optimum path to minimize LCCO2. Monte Carlo simulation is employed to obtain the possibility distribution of LCCO2. Finally, it is shown that how much CO2 emission can be reduced under the optimum supply chain.
本研究ではLCIAを行うため、より網羅性を考慮した化学物質における影響評価手法の開発を目的とする。具体的には、化管法におけるPRTR制度の対象となっている生態系に有害なおそれがある化学物質の被害係数を開発していくことと、化学物質のLCIAにおける合意モデルとしてUNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiativeが開発したUSEtoxを適用し、近年LCAの普及が進むアジア諸国の評価にも対応した評価係数の開発を検討していく。