地図
Online ISSN : 2185-646X
Print ISSN : 0009-4897
ISSN-L : 0009-4897
56 巻, 1 号
選択された号の論文の16件中1~16を表示しています
特集:日本の近代化に伊能図が果たした役割
総説・展望
  • -伊能測量の前後に行われた国土測量と比較する
    星埜 由尚
    2018 年 56 巻 1 号 p. 1-8
    発行日: 2018/03/31
    公開日: 2019/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

    Around the early 19th century when the country scale survey of INOH, Tadataka was carried out, some country scale surveys were performed. Those are the map of Japan in Kyouhou era (Kyouhou Nihonzu) compiled by TAKEBE, Katahiro in response to a command of the Shogun Yoshimune, the cadastral survey in RyukyuKenryu Kenchi) and its compiled map of “Ryukyu-Kokunozu”, and the “Rapid Surveyed Map” (Jinsoku-Sokuzu) in Meiji era.

    In order to evaluate the Inoh's survey I compared it with these surveys so that I would point out the following results.

    (1) In the Kyouhou Nihonzu and the Kenryu Kenchi, the idea of survey and map compilation by using ground control points is recognized. The accuracy of map compilation is secured by using direction targets (Miate-yama) in the case of the Kyouhou Nihonzu or triangulation points (Shirubiishi) in the case of the Kenryu Kenchi. On the other hand, surveyed lines are the framework of map in the case of Inoh's map and the Inoh's survey does not have the idea of ground control point.

    (2) In the Kenryu Kenchi, the triangulation system was seemed to be built and the replication of survey was secured by constructing the Shirubiishi network.

    (3) It may be said that a portent of the modernity to develop to the concept of ground control point is recognized in the Kyouhou Nihonzu and the Kenryu Kenchi. The Inoh's survey performed astronomical observation and intended to get the data of longitude and latitude. It may be said a portent of the modernity. The Kyouhou Nihonzu and Kenryu Kenchi did not have the concept of the longitude and latitude.

    (4) The Inoh's survey shows the peak of the survey in the early modern times, but it may be said that there was technological thought exceeding the Inoh's survey in the Kyouhou Nihonzu and Kenryu Kenchi.

    (5) If it is called for modern survey to perform triangulation and leveling based on the ground control points, the Jinsoku-Sokuzu in Meiji era should be origin of modern survey to be performed systematically.

    Concerning INOH, Tadataka, there are many studies about his life and person image, process of his survey trip, origin or whereabouts of the Inoh's map and so on. But there are few studies about his technology of survey and map compilation. Therefore, there are many questions about his survey technology. I will hope that study on survey technology of INOH, Tadataka will advance in near future.

  • 鈴木 純子
    2018 年 56 巻 1 号 p. 9-23
    発行日: 2018/03/31
    公開日: 2019/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

    Inô-zu were the first accurate scientific survey maps of the entire coastline of Japanese archipelago officially presented to the shogun in 1821.

    It is generally said that the shogun shelved them in his library, and it was until the closing days of the Edo period nearly a half century later, that Inô-zu began to be utilized and appreciated. The donation of the small scale series of Inô-zu to the British fleet in 1861, and the official publication of them in 1867 were the scarce case known as its utilization under the Tokugawa Shogunate.

    However there were some cases other than the examples above showing the vestiges of the utilization of Inô-zu, such as the case of Sado Kuniezu (Provincial map of Sado) in the years of 1835-1836, the investigation of the coast of Edo bay for its security by officers of foreign affairs of the shogunal government in 1849, the coastal survey of Ise Bay in 1861 by the officers of the Navy, and some printed maps published in the same period. These examples show that the utilization of Inô-zu was not such strictly restricted as it has been long thought of. It seems that the each case properly take advantage of the feature of Inô-zu of accurately surveyed coastal maps.

    After Meiji Restoration Inô-zu served as bases and important data sources to meet the urgent needs of accurate scientific maps and charts and of the source of compilation of historiography and topography of Japan.

    According to several historical documents at that time, we know the Map of Japan(1:432,000 compiled by the Dajokan-Seiin(Grand Council of Japan)presented to the International Exhibition held at Vienna in 1873 was the first and the most prominent accomplishment of the modern style map based on Inô-zu. Unfortunately we can no longer trace its appearance because the map seems to have been lost now.

    Subsequently the utilization of the Inô-zu as the basic information has followed soon at official agencies such as the Bureau of Historiography, the Geographical Bureau, Ministry of Education, then prevailed widely in private enterprises. Inô-zu was also used as the base map for investigations of geology, soil, mines and so on.

    We can draw the conclusion from this review mentioned above that the appreciation of the basic property of Inô-zu : accurate coastal survey with graticule has been common understanding of those who utilized Inô-zu to develop their maps.

論説
  • 青山 宏夫
    2018 年 56 巻 1 号 p. 24-39
    発行日: 2018/03/31
    公開日: 2019/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

    Ph. F. von Siebold came to Japan to serve as physician at the Dutch Trading Post on Deshima in Nagasaki and, upon his return to Europe in 1828, he attempted to take with him a map of Japan, a prohibited item, that he had received from Kageyasu Takahashi, who was in government service as Tenmonkata. When the map was discovered by the government, the persons involved were apprehended and the map was confiscated. This was the so-called “Siebold Incident.” Siebold, however, had covertly made a copy of the map, which he took with him out of the country. Siebold produced a map based on the map he had brought back and published the map, which depicted the shape of the Japanese archipelago more accurately than those existing in Europe at the time, in Leiden, Holland in 1840.

    The paper identified this map of Japan which Siebold obtained from Kageyasu Takahashi and used as the original source of the Siebold’s map of Japan. In research to date, the map has been conjectured to be the Kana-gaki Inō Tokubetsu Shōzu( Special Small Inō Map with Kana Notations), which is in the collection of the National Diet Library, though there has been no direct evidence that would actually prove this. For verification, a survey was conducted of map materials in the possession of the von Brandenstein-Zeppelin family, descendants of Siebold who currently reside in Germany.

    This group of map materials has not been well known in map research thus far. After first providing an introduction, it is pointed out that, as a characteristic, it is comprised primarily of handtraced maps, drafts and such. Due to this characteristic, it was possible to determine from this group of map materials the manner in which Siebold actually carried out tasks involving maps. As a result of the survey, five maps of Japan were found that would appear to have a relationship to the Kanagaki Inō Tokubetsu Shōzu. In particular, through a detailed examination of scale and notation content on two of the maps, items 22 and 26, unique characteristics were identified that are apparent in the Kana-gaki Inō Tokubetsu Shōzu, providing definite proof that they were copied. At the same time, by clarifying, based on new materials relating to the Siebold Incident, the content of testimony given by Kageyasu Takahashi, who was subjected to interrogation for the crime of providing Siebold with the map of Japan, a prohibition item, it was confirmed that the map of Japan at issue is indeed the Kana-gaki Inō Tokubetsu Shōzu.

    Furthermore, examining the place names and longitude/latitude notations on map item 22, it was verified that the major source is Shoshū Keii (Siebold-collection of Leiden University Library), which is an abridged version of Chisei Teiyō(Outline of the Geography of Japan) edited by Kageyasu Takahashi, in addition to the source provided by A. J. von Krusenstern. Based on the facts mentioned above that the Kana-gaki Inō Tokubetsu Shōzu is a map edited by Kageyasu Takahashi and that the major source of information concerning the place names and longitude/latitude notations is Kageyasu Takahashi, it was clarified that he was not merely a provider of a map of Japan but contributed considerably to Siebold’s map of Japan as the provider of his own unique geographical product.

  • 井田 浩三
    2018 年 56 巻 1 号 p. 40-50
    発行日: 2018/03/31
    公開日: 2019/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

    Ino Tadataka's Map of Japan(Inô-zu)was already completed by 1821. It was, however, never printed or published and thus was never disseminated within Japan. In 1840, Siebold published “Karte vom Japanischen Reiche” after obtaining maps compiled from Inô-zu. At the end of the Tokugawa period, Admiralty Chart 2347 based on Ino's small-scaled maps(Inô-shozu)was published. These maps published overseas were the precursors of accurately drawn maps of Japan.

    Meanwhile, to coincide with the Paris Expo, the Tokugawa shogunate officially published a map of Japan named “Kanpan Jissoku Nihon-chizu” (1865)based on Inô-zu to demonstrate the territory it ruled. After 1871, maps of Japan based on Inô-zu originated surveyed forms were disseminated at the initiative of the government including the Ministry of Education.

    This has led the author to assume that there could have been maps of Japan created in the U.S. and European countries on the basis of “Kanpan Jissoku Nihon-chizu” and searched through publications in these countries.

    The author has found that “Carte routiere de la Province d'Osyou (Moutsou)”, a map included in “Traite d l'éducation des vers à soie au Japon ”(Japanese edition of “Yosan-Shinsetsu” translated into French), is based on “Kanpan Jissoku Nihonchizu” in addition to Siebold's “Karte vom Japanischen Reiche” and Admiralty Chart. The author has attempted to explain the background and reasoning.

    Rosny's map, however, was limited in its scope (Ôshu) and quantity of publication. This is probably why its achievements were never widely known.

    In contrast, Siebold's “Karte vom Japanischen Reiche” became widely known because it was attached to “Narrative of The Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Sea and Japan”, and was adopted for maps from publishers in the U.S., Britain, Germany and France, among others, and became the majority.

    After 1870, their maps also took “Admiralty Chart 2347” into account and can be considered to have taken roughly the same forms that exist today.

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