This study applies the idea of global warming mitigation to the conservation of threatened wildlife. Although healthy habitats are quite indispensable for appropriate wildlife management, habitat destruction results in undermining the richness of species wildlife, releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Keeping land biomes healthy should be considered to solve the problems. In relation to the serious deterioration of wildlife habitats, healthy land biomes (biodiversity hotspots) serve as a large reservoir of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Simultaneously, the healthy land biomes have a large capacity to uptake atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reconstructing natural and healthy land biomes will enlarge the capacity of carbon uptake in terrestrial ecosystems and prevent further global warming. In line with this scenario, we recommend the strategy for reconstructing natural environments, especially, the natural forest reconstruction method and the naturally diverse river construction method, as a first step to recover natural and healthy terrestrial ecosystems.
Many species of Falconiformes are difficult to sex, since they are monomorphic in external morphology, as are many other avian species. This problem may prevent ecological studies of them and make it difficult to plan conservation programs. Therefore, development of a sexing method for Falconidae has been desirable. We performed sex identification for eight species of raptors that inhabit Japan, using a method based on the difference of intronic length between the CHD1W and CHD1Z genes. This method of sexing is easier and quicker to perform than other methods developed thus far, and made identification possible for all species tested. Moreover, successful sexing from a small DNA source suggests that this method may be applicable to the research of individuals/populations in the wild. In conclusion, the method used in this study is very useful for sex identification in raptors and could be of great value for any future conservation of rare raptors.
This study investigated the prevalence of seropositivity and the isolation of Leptospira from Mus caroli and M. musculus yonakunii. The observed overall seroprevalence of antibody in Mus spp. was 21.7% (n=83) with 20.3% (n=77) and 33.3% (n=6) in M. caroli and M.m.yonakunii, respectively. The serovars were autumnaris, canicola, castellinis, grippotyphosa, javanica and rachmati. Leptospira were isolated from two individuals of M. caroli. These samples were identified as serotype castellonis using the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) and flaB-PCR. On Okinawa Island, serovar castellonis has been isolated only from humans and M. caroli, but never from other animals. On Okinawa Island, M. caroli is the main reservoir of serovar castellonis infection in human.
Age-related changes of semen parameters from 1.5 to 5.7 years were evaluated in captive bharal (Pseudois nayaur). In 28 trials. 25 semen samples were collected using an artificial vagina method from two males during four breeding seasons between December 2001 and February 2005. One male bharal was able to ejaculate semen at the age only of 1.5 years, but its quality was quite inferior (semen volume : 0.24ml, semen pH : 8.3, sperm concentration : 13.8 million/ml, sperm motility index : 0.0, sperm viability : 0.0% and morphologically normal sperm : 54.1%). As age increased, semen quality improved and totally stabilized by the age of 4.5 years. The final quality (semen volume : >1ml, semen pH : 6.8, sperm concentration : 3,500-4,000 million/ml, sperm motility index : <80, sperm viability : >70% and morphologically normal sperm : >95%) was virtually equal to that reported in domestic sheep and goat.
Anoplocephala sp. recovered from the small intestine of an Indian rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis, estimated to be 28 years old that died in the Higashiyama Zoo, Nagoya, Japan. To date, very little is known about helminthes of rhinoceros from which only three species of Anoplocephala were previously reported, namely A. diminuta, A. gigantea and A. latissima. We described the morphology of the present Anoplocephala, although the species remains unidentified.
Serum samples from 115 Japanese wild boar (Sus Scrofa Leucomystax) killed by hunters in the 4 prefectures of Shikoku, Japan were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by means of the Latex agglutination test (LAT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using whole, fixed tachyzoites as the target antigen and peroxidase conjugated anti-swine IgG antibodies as the secondary antibody. In none of the 115 samples were antibodies to T. gondii detected by LAT or ELISA. These results suggest a low prevalence of T. gondii infection in wild boar in Shikoku, Japan. Serologic surveys will be necessary in the future to confirm it.
A total of ten one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) suffering from mange were used in this investigation. The clinical signs of affected animals were debility, various degrees of alopecia, severe dermatitis, pruritis, and thickening with scales on different areas of skin. All camels were treated for mange caused by Sarcoptic scabiei var. cameli by rubbing Aloe vera gel leaves topically on the affected skin lesions everyday. All skin lesions disappeared rapidly and unexpectedly, and the absence of mite from skin scraping.
A 13-year-old walrus, which suffered from respiratory failure for about 10 months, became recumbency and died. Necropsy revealed severe congestion in various organs, firm lungs with marked interstitial emphysema, presence of whitish foamy fluid in the broncho-tracheal lumina, nutmeg liver and dilated right ventricle with thinned wall. Histological examination revealed marked congestion in various organs, chronic congestive pulmonary edema and congestive liver, which suggested systemic circulatory failure. In the heart, various sized wavy myocardial fibers as well as interstitial edema was observed; occasional necrosis of myocardial fibers associated with calcification were scattered in this lesion. Cause of systemic circulatory failure in the present warlus was discussed.
A female bottlenose dolphin had a fever and hypodynamia, and was found dead. At necropsy, the lungs were not involuted for the most parts, and had exudation of fluid from the cut surface. In the lung there were numerous yellowish-white abscesses, miliary to 5cm. In the heart, there was a 2cm yellowish-green abscess in the left ventricle as well. Histopathologically, the lungs showed severe chronic purulent pneumonia with multifocal abscesses. The heart had severe purulent myocarditis with multifocal abscesses and necrotic foci. The brain showed severe purulent meningo-encephalitis. This cause of the dolphin's death might be severe purulent pneumonia.
A female false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), estimated to be more than 25-years-old, died from chronic purulent pneumonia in spite of antibiotic therapy. At the necropsy, Vibrio alginolyticus was isolated from all samples including the lungs. Histopathologic examination revealed that multiple abscesses containing gram-positive cocci were present in the lungs. A comparison of the total protein, fibrinogen, leukocytes and average monthly temperatures for 8 years revealed an increase in total protein, an increase in subsequent average monthly temperatures, and an increase in both fibrinogen and leukocytes. Three items without the total protein were changed similarly. Bacteremia was observed in 4 out of 13 blood bacterial cultures. Additionally, in 3 out of 4 bacteremia, leukocytes were more than 20,000/μl.