ABSTRACT. The zoological garden is socially placed not only as the recreational facility but also as the social educational facility, as the research organization and as the center of conservation for nature and wildlife, and the technical staff of the zoological garden such as keeper, veterinarian and education officer perform not only each work as profession but also conduct many research activity about zoology, veterinary medicine and education by their own or cooperated with the research organization such as university. Yokohama city zoos perform several wildlife conservation programs such as technical cooperation for Uganda Wildlife Education Centre supported by Japan International Cooperation Agency(JICA), Bali mynah reintroduction to Bali island in Indonesia also supported by JICA, captive breeding of Tokyo bitterling once extinct in Yokohama city area. It is often recognized that the zoological garden is a simple recreation facility and the keeper is a simple worker to care the animal. But the zoological garden is one of the natural science museum and the technical staff carry same role as the museum curator. Especially municipal zoos are hoped to achieve public interest for education about nature and wildlife conservation because management of those zoo is mainly based on municipal tax.
ABSTRACT. Cryopreservation of genetic resources (cultured cells, organ, DNA etc.) on endangered species was started since 2004 at the time capsule building in National Institute for Environmental Studies. The cryopreservation is supported by some zoos in Japan. The genetic resources were used for various research activities regarding cell biology, genetics and reproduction. Among them, the results of two research activities were introduced, namely, a new method for isolating germ cells of wild birds and evaluation of pathogenicity on avian influenza virus using cultured cells.
ABSTRACT. Initially, an aquarium veterinarian is responsible for the treatment of the marine mammals. Therefore, it is hard to say whether or not they have been conducting research. For example, in Japan there is no standard dosage for drugs used with marine mammals. However, it has become possible to show drug dosage administration through the writing of case reports respectively. There is a great deal of data concerning the daily and monthly measurement of body temperature, blood, weight, etc. Therefore, any physiological and/or clinical change will be shown in this data, and should be reanalyzed. In addition, the data contained in studbooks allows us to know data values for animals in captivity at the national level. For cooperative research, aquarium veterinarians not only support animal care for research, but also write research manuscripts. In conclusion, I would like to state that research for the aquarium veterinarian will lead to building a clinical foundation for the marine mammals.
The seminar “Introduction to Wildlife”was held at Hachioji-Seminar House, Tokyo in August 2011. The purpose of this seminar was to offer students an opportunity to consider their activities in the fields of wildlife and to develop the next generation within these fields. We invited eleven lecturers for the following topics: overview of wildlife science, parasitology, alien species, cetology, theriogenology, infectious disease medicine, management, rescue, ecology, conservation medicine. Furthermore, some talks were given by the graduates from the Student Group of the Japanese Society of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. The lectures were supplemented by night seminar for further discussions. Through this seminar, we learned the diversity in the fields of wildlife and exchanged ideas actively with each other. This seminar provided students important opportunities to learn about wildlife and insights into future directions regarding their activities and career paths.
The masticatory muscles of the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) were examined macroscopically in order to understand the masticatory characteristics. The masseter muscle was divided into three layers: superficial, middle and deep. The lateral part of the superficial layer of the masseter muscle originated from the zygomatic arch deeply curved into the dorsal direction. This part of the superficial layer was covered by a tendinous sheet and inserted to the ventral border and the angular process of the lateral part of the mandible by a fleshy portion. The medial part of the superficial layer was inserted to the caudo-ventral area of the mandible by a tendinous sheet. In front of the deep layer, moreover, the well-developed temporal muscle that enclosed the anterior border of the coronoid process of the mandible was recognized. The masseter muscle could obtain the wider area between the zygomatic arch and the ventral border of the mandible to increase its muscle volume because of a deeply curved zygomatic arch, and furthermore the well-developed temporal muscle that enclosed the anterior border of the coronoid process was disclosed. It is suggested that, therefore, these muscles of the arctic fox could produce a stronger biting force as compared to the body size. It may be assumed that the arctic fox has adapted the structure of the masticatory muscles to compensate for reduced masticatory forces with the small head.
The problems of conservation of the Komodo monitor (Varanus komodoensis) were examined in Kampung Komodo (Komodo Village). The tourism has changed the economic structure of the district since 1990s, however the new policy did not cause the wealth of the villagers. The coexistence of the Komodo monitors and the residents of the Islands have been traditionally established in spite of some victims of the human and livestock. Certainly the dangerous Komodo monitors has disturbed and is disturbing the safety life of the humans, however, the construction plans such as high-floored house and the traditional lifestyles like fishery have maintained harmonious relationships between the village people and the monitors. As the latest conservation and tourism policies have partially shifted the works of the villagers from fishery to souvenir sales, however the village people and local societies have not become rich. The excessive development of the tourism about the Komodo monitors should be noticed in the future.
From 1999 to 2007, one trematode, one cestode, 23 nematode, and two acanthocephalan species were collected from the alimentary tracts of 21 wild birds belonging to 19 species from Chubu District, Japan. Eight nematode and two acanthocephalan species were identified to the species level. Porrocaecum ensicaudatum was collected from White's thrushes (Zoothera dauma) in Kanagawa and Komatsu Cities, which is a new host record for this helminth species, and the first record of this parasite in Japan. Two other new host records were also obtained: Thominx tenuissima from a Sunda scops owl (Otus lempiji) in Komatsu City, and Dispharynx emberizae from a White's thrush in Kanazawa City.