The symposium of “zoo with research” was held in the 14th Annual meeting of Japanese Society of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine （JSZWM） in 2008 （Kobe，Hyogo，Japan）, and after that，the meeting of “zoo with research” had been continued as freely planned meeting until the 22th Annual meeting. In the 23th Annual meeting of JSZWM in 2017 （Musashino, Tokyo, Japan）, the meeting of “zoo with research” was the 10 time in the meeting of “zoo with research 10” held as symposium. In the past meetings，researches were presented by total 38 researchers such as veterinarians and zookeepers in zoo or aquarium，teachers at Universities，museum curator and graduate student. Furthermore，the lecture contents have been retained by writing as the memory of meeting in the Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. In the meeting by the committee for science and education held in the 23th Annual meeting，the continuation of the meeting of “zoo with research” with new coordinators was decided，therefore，further evolution of the meeting from “zoo with research 11” is largely expected.
It has to be said that the research field of the zoos in Japan is still underdevIeloped. I conducted the research about macoropod’s lumpy jaw disease（LJD） from various aspects and gained Ph.D in veterinary medicine. This study field on LJD contained internal parasite examination, stress survey and endotoxin test. This is my mission to continue the research to contribute the society and enhance the quality and value of zoos.
The first zoo founded in Japan was modeled on the Ménagerie, le zoo du Jardin des Plantes, opened following the French Revolution in 1794. When Yoshio Tanaka and Yukichi Fukuzawa visited Paris and the Ménagerie as shogunal dispatches at the end of the Edo Period, it may have impressed them with the depth of European culture and natural history. At the time, famous scholars such as Dr. Chevalier de Lamarck, Dr. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Dr. Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier, were involved with the Ménagerie in Paris. This proves that the zoo was historically based on research related to natural history, zoology, and comparative anatomy. Although little recognition about the importance of the scientific basis of Japan’s first zoo was found in official documentation—the parliamentary proceedings for the establishment of a museum in the Meiji Era—this policy has not included zoos established in Japan after the first at Ueno Park and, especially, with postwar development. There is no doubt that the reason why research among Japanese zoos has been disrupted is that studying the environment is not in a good in condition. However, is this the only reason? I believe that people involved in Japanese zoos need preparedness for carrying the more than 200 years history of research at zoos, setting up new research which adapts to the modern era and, also, disseminating findings from zoos to the larger world. We should continue to struggle to create a future focused on research which zoos historically deeply value.
In the face of escalation of biodiversity loss, ex-situ conservation challenges by zoos and aquariums are becoming more important. Since the available resources of zoos and aquariums such as facilities, human resources and financial resources are limited, collection plan which prioritize the target species based on the objectives or feasibility has been developed. And ex-situ conservation measures are carried out in accordance with the captive population management programs that have been set up for prioritized species to maintain proper genetic and demographic conditions of the populations. Furthermore, recently animal welfare practice must be considered to proceed with the conservation programs. What it comes down to is that zoos and aquariums are required to set up the captive populations consisting of physically and psychologically healthy individuals and maintain them for long periods of time with preserving their genetic diversities by implementing all these conservation approaches. To increase effectiveness of ex-situ conservation approaches, several supportive measures such as husbandry guidelines and accreditation systems for zoos and aquariums have been introduced. Public awareness activities and research studies have also been gaining recognition as the important components of conservation challenges by zoos and aquariums. As described, conservation challenges by zoos and aquariums are becoming diversified and complicated. Though these challenges are positioned as the supplementary measures for in-situ conservation, it is quite certain that they will become more important in the future.
It may be said that the history of Japanese zoo, aquarium and social education is characterized by lack of the independence of will. As for it, the establishment of the zoo as a leader of the natural science and scientific research has been disturbed. In the Meiji period, the scientific research has not been laid to the essence of the organization as for the zoo, the aquarium at the historical standing point in Japan. It was surrounded by various breaks to come from different motives and value standards although the legislative system based upon the freedom after the Second World War was maintained, and the development of the research in the zoo has been poor. The breaks have been present in the zoo as follows: break between duties and the research, break between pure science and practical technique, break between social education administration and the scientific research administration, break between the applied veterinary medicine and zoology, break between reductionism and comparative zoology, break between education administration and the environmental administration, and break between education administration and the construction administration. It is desired that zoo will be established as a leader of the scientific research.
Avian malaria parasites ( Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp.) and closely related parasitic Leucocytozoon spp. are observed in a variety of pigeons and doves (order: Columbiformes) worldwide. However the prevalence and molecular phylogeny of avian malaria parasites and Leucocytozoon spp. from pigeons and doves inhabiting Japan are still not known. This study clarified the prevalence of avian malaria parasites in Columbiformes in three locations (Kanto region, Okinawa, and Ogasawara) of Japan and estimated their molecular phylogeny. Blood samples were collected from 173 Japanese Columbiformes (5 species, 3 subspecies and 4 genera). The partial cytochrome b gene (478 bp) of the avian malaria parasite mitochondrial genome was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction. The PCR products were directly sequenced. The sequences were compared with GenBank records by using an NCBI Nucleotide BLAST search. Phylogenetic trees were constructed in MEGA6. Avian malaria parasites were identified in 50.9 % of birds sampled (88/173). The phylogenetic tree suggests that there are at least 5 species, 2 genera and 2 subgenera of avian malaria parasites and 4 species of Leucocytozoon infecting Columbiformes in Japan. This finding is indicative of host-switching between the different bird species at the genus level. Therefore, more detailed research on avian malaria parasite infections is needed to develop conservation strategies for the endangered species of the order Columbiformes in Japan.
The impact of environmental stimuli on the expression of nesting behaviour of Sulawesi babirusa (Babyrousa celebensis) was explored over a period of 1339 days from 01st August 2006 until 31st March 2010 in a large animal enclosure on Bali, Indonesia. We found that nest building behaviour and the re-use of sleeping nests occurred more frequently in the dry season than the wet season and was clearly influenced by both a drop in the ambient temperature and an increase in wind speed. Additionally, net effective temperature (NET) computed from a combination of ambient temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed indicated a close relation to the nesting behaviour frequency; a decreasing trend of the expression rate of nesting behaviour with increasing NET in the early evening. Moreover, the trend of the expression rate by 12-hr NET fluctuation from 05:00 hr to 17:00 hr was also found out in all seasons. Meanwhile, 24-hr rainfall had a negative impact on the expression rate. These findings suggested that NET was a useful meteorological index to discuss the motivation to exhibit the nesting behaviour of babirusa, and also babirusa probably found thermal comfort in the sleeping nest.