Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Online ISSN : 2185-744X
Print ISSN : 1342-6133
ISSN-L : 1342-6133
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Special articles
  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    Type: Special articles
    2019 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 127
    Published: December 20, 2019
    Released: February 20, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Yoshihiro SHIMOJI
    Type: Special articles
    2019 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 129-133
    Published: December 20, 2019
    Released: February 20, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a rod-shaped, gram-positive intracellular pathogen that can cause erysipelas in a variety of vertebrates, including humans, livestock, wild mammals (both marine and terrestrial), and birds. In wild mammals, the mode of infection by the organism is unclear; however, most of apparently healthy domesticated pigs carry the organism in their tonsils and other lymphoid tissues, and the organism can multiply and spread, and causes the disease when host defenses are compromised. I hereby would like to explain new findings revealed by genome analyses and the pathogenicity of E. rhusiopathiae and host defense mechanisms.

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  • Yasushi KATAOKA
    Type: Special articles
    2019 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 135-140
    Published: December 20, 2019
    Released: February 20, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     Swine erysipelas caused by Erysipelothrix rhusipathiae is an infectious disease of swine and Wild boar. E. rhusiopathiae infections are also reported in cattle, dogs, birds and cetaceans. In particular, the occurrence of swine erysipelas in dolphins has reported many cases of death due to acute septicemia. Penicillins are effective for the treatment of swine erysipelas. In addition, live vaccines and inactivated vaccines are applied for the prevention of E. rhusiopathiae infections. Furthermore, it is important for swine to be thorough daily hygiene managements in order to prevent for swine erysipelas. In this lecture, I would like to think about a more effective preventive measure against E. rhusiopathiae infection in dolphins by preventing contamination of feed fish, by vaccination with swine inactivated vaccine, and by examining the trend of the antibody titer against E. rhusiopathiae.

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  • Dai OHTSU, Hiromi OHTSUBO
    Type: Special articles
    2019 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 141-145
    Published: December 20, 2019
    Released: February 20, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     In Yokohama Hakkeijima Sea Paradise, we have experienced a few cases of swine erysipelas infection to our live collection of cetacean specimens since we established our facility in 1993. Because this infectious disease is known as a zoonosis and also we have lost some of our specimen by acute sepsis from this, we have been vaccinating our specimens with inactivated vaccine since 2003 (interrupted vaccination temporarily from 2004 to 2006). As of September 2018, we have successfully vaccinated 25 specimens over 5 species out of 30, specimens over 5 species in our collection. We have been using inactivated vaccine contains alkali treated somatic antigen of swine erysipelas strain M2 (serotype 2) and tocopherol acetate adjuvant (PORCILIS® ERY, MSD Animal Health Co., Ltd.). Every six months, each specimen received 2ml of vaccine injected into muscle around dorsal fin regardless of species or body weight. All specimens except for the youngest one born last year were trained to accept vaccination with voluntary behavior, so that we are able to give them shots without holding animals. Since we started vaccination program, we have not recorded swain erysipelas infection on our collection and scarcely developed any side reactions.

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  • Keiko YAMAMOTO
    Type: Special articles
    2019 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 147-151
    Published: December 20, 2019
    Released: February 20, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     At Okinawa Marine Research Center, Motobu-genkimura, we have experienced one case of cutaneous form erysipelas by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in 2004. Because of this, we have decided use of inactivated vaccine to test effectiveness of vaccination. Next year, we have experienced two cases of cutaneous erysipelas in unvaccinated animals, But, vaccinated animals kept elevated levels of antibody against Erysipelothrix and did not affected with disease. The antibody titers were 1:64 and over for well over a year. Therefore vaccination was terminated. In September 2017, we have experienced one cutaneous and two case of acute septicemic form erysipelas. One of septicemic form was post-mortem diagnosis. In January 2018, four bottlenose dolphins elevated serum GOT and GPT. All of these dolphins had elevated levels of antibody to Erysipelothrix, confirmed by growth agglutination(GA)titer. That indicated possibility of infection with Erysipelothrix. Infection from food was suspected as the reason for the frequent occurrence of disease. We feed 7 different species of frozen fish to our cetacean collection and gene fragments specific to E. rhusiopathiae were detected from 2 out of 7 species of feed fish. Therefore these contaminated feeding fish were considered to be the source of infection.

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  • Miki OZAKI
    Type: Special articles
    2019 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 153-157
    Published: December 20, 2019
    Released: February 20, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     At the Adventure World, there were a few cases of erysipelas infections in three species of cetaceans, such as bottlenose dolphin, pacific white-sided dolphin, and false killer whale. One of them was occurred that all five cetaceans were suffered from cutaneous lesions of erysipelas between 1990 and 1998. After several years, second case was occurred from 2006 to 2008, 2 bottlenose dolphins and 2 pacific white-sided dolphins died at 3-4 days after onset of erysipelas infectious disease. As a countermeasure, we started vaccination for erysipelas infection from November 2007. After the vaccination, one pacific white-sided dolphin died from erysipelas infections in March 2008. Since then there has been no record of erysipelas infection therefore we are considering that vaccination has a certain effect on prevention of this infectious disease.

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  • Hideaki SHINDO, Kenzo KUWASAKI, Toshiyuki TATSUKAWA
    Type: Special articles
    2019 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 159-162
    Published: December 20, 2019
    Released: February 20, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     At Shimonoseki Marine Science Museum, there is no record except for one case as described in detail below of outbreak of Erysipelas infection about 18 years since establishment of our facility in 2001. The case out of 20 individuals of our Cetacean collection (12 Bottlenose Dolphin and 8 Finless Porpoise), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from one of Finless Porpoise blood sample. The antibody titers against E. rhusiopathiae of Growth Agglutination (GA) of 12 individuals in April 2018 were all less than 16 times. On the other hand, gene fragments specific to E. rhusiopathiae were detected from our frozen foods for marine mammals which was in use as of February 2018. We have been using Neutral PH Electrolyzed Water through storing these food items in refrigerator after thawing, and these results indicate the possibility of suppression for bacterial growth by Neutral PH Electrolyzed Water on E. rhusiopathiae.

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  • Fumio TERASAWA, Chika SHIRAKATA, Mai SHIMAMORI
    Type: Special articles
    2019 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 163-167
    Published: December 20, 2019
    Released: February 20, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     At Enoshima Aquarium from 1957 to 2003, there have been several types of erysipelas infections in cetaceans were recorded. In 1960, these incidents caused mortality on three species of 21 individuals. Additionally, 9 out of 10 staff members who performed autopsy were infected by erysipelas. In 1980, one bottlenose dolphin died from endocarditis. In 1999, 20-year-old bottlenose dolphin also died from septicemia, and serotype 2 was isolated from its blood sample. Six-year-old bottlenose dolphin recovered from infection by administering oral dose of penicillins and tetracyclines combination. At new Enoshima Aquarium from 2004 to 2018, only one pacific white-sided dolphin died from septicemia. Also, serotype 2 and untypeable were isolated from blood samples of two bottlenose dolphins in poor health condition at time. The untypeable was isolated from blood sample of the same dolphin again 4 months later from initial record of this type. It has been more than 60 years since Enoshima Aquarium started its cetaceans display, however, even now erysipelas infections have occasionally been observed.

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