The prevalence of infectious agents, drug resistant-Escherichia coli and residual organochlorine in 14 species of mammals and 20 species of birds was investigated during the period 1991 to 1993. Zoonotic organisms, Yersinia enterocolitica, Y.pseudotuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes, were isolated from several species of mammals and birds. Furthermore, seroevidence of infection due to the etiological agent of zoonosis, Chlamydia psittaci, Leptospira interrogans, Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia burgdorferi and Hantavirus, was found in many species of wild animals, indicating that many zoonoses are prevalent in wild animals in Japan. Serological surveillance also revealed that the sika deer, wild rats, wild boars, Japanese black bears, foxes and raccoon dogs were infected with canine distemper virus and/or canine adenovirus. Drug resistant-E.coli was isolated from Japanese black bears, rock ptarmigans and Japanese serows which inhabit mountainous areas. Furthermore, a large amount of residual organochlorine was detected in the birds. The amount of residual organochlorine was especially high in raptors, whose numbers are decreasing in Japan. These findings suggest that environmental contamination due to human activities has reached into mountainous areas of Japan.
Pathology is a natural science which investigates abnormal structural or functional states of the body. To examine the cause of an abnormality, pathologists conduct detailed macroscopic dissection(necropsy)on deceased animals. To study the morphological changes and functional disorders in tissues and organs, tissues are next processed by routine histology and examined microscopically. The fundamentals of animal pathology are to examine the nature of diseases by comparative investigations with the etiology and characteristics of similar diseases among other animal species and human beings(Comparative Pathology). This approach is thought to be one of the most effective ways to epizoonotic potential. A thought pathological examination of all animals dying spontaneously in a colony or zoo setting enables the pathologist to make clear and accurate assessments of disease causation. Thus, the infections, metabolic or toxic etiologies are revealed and appropriate steps to prevent additional loss of animals and zoonotic spread to humans can be made. The role of pathology in wildlife medicine can be summed up as follows:1.A monitoring of infections disease for wildlife management, prevention of zoonosis and domestic animal hygiene. 2.An index of environmental pollution;air, water and soil pollution. 3.A comparative pathology on aging changes and the incidence of neoplasms(zoo animals). Because the quality of tissues influence the accuracy of dianosis, proper communication between pathologists and field biologists is essential to ensure appropriate specimen collection in the field. In near future, it would be desirable to have pathological information archived and tissues from zoo animals and wildlife concentrically located and made available to the public in Japan.
The Japanese black bear Ursus thibetanus japonicus, a large terrestrial mammal inhabits Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu islands of Japan. However, Kyushu populations face extinction while populations on Shikoku island, in regions of Chugoku, and on the Kii peninsula are endangered. Ecological surveys such as direct observation, fecal analysis after field-sign detection and radio-tracking were carried out on Japanese black bears in Shirakawa Village, Gifu Prefecture in 1990-1994. Food habits of Japanese black bears in the spring and autumn related to the beech forest habitat of Shirakawa Village. The bears ate flower buds and seeds of the beech in the beechnut high-yield year while they ate the other food in the beechnut low-yield year. Mean home range sizes of Japanese black bears were found to be 6.4 km^2 and 3.1 km^2 in male and female bears, respectively. Studies on reproductive physiology of Japanese black bears, which were conducted under captive condition, determined that male bears exhibit remarkable seasonality in reproduction and that female bears have species-specific characteristics of reproduction including delayed implantation and parturition during hibernation. These findings suggest that an adequate feeding environment should be secured for the reproductive success and conservation of the Japanese black bear.
In Shiga Prefecture the emergency rescue of injured wildlife began in 1979. In this system, veterinarians in private practice who are interested in wildlife volunteer as doctors for the rescue of wildlife. The cost of treatment is paid by the Shiga Prefectural Government. Upon recovery, wildlife is released into the wild, but at present there are no facilities for animals which have suffered permanent injuries. Every year, 100-200 injured wildlife are delivered to doctors;however, no intensive diagnosis or examination of the wildlife is performed. Therefore, potentially useful information from the injured wildlife for management and nature conservation is lost. Although the budget covers only the treatment of injured wildlife, Shiga Prefectural Government pays 25 times that money to kill or prevent wildlife from damaging agriculture or fisheries. This rescue system as it exists presently is incomplete for the management of wildlife. I insist that a comprehensive Wildlife Center is necessary to conserve and manage wildlife. Three functions must be satisfied:(1)Investigation and Research Census & Monitoring of Wildlife, Assessment of the Habitat, Collection and Analysis of Information (2)Management Conservation of Endangered Species, Rescue of Injured Wildlife, Control of the Number of Wildlife Damaging Agriculture or Fisheries (3)Enlightenment and Education Public Information, Exhibition of Wildlife, Cooperation with NGOs
The second or index finger of the slow loris(Nycticebus coucang javanicus)is unusually shorter than the other fingers, indicating that it may not be involved in grasping function. In addition, the second digit of the foot of slow loris has a hooked claw or comb nail, in contrast to flat claws of the other digits on the foot. These morphological specification of the index finger suggest a corresponding functional difference. All digits have round soft pads on their tip of palmar side. Together with well developed metacarpal and metatarsal pads, the thumb and the third, fourth and fifth digits constitute main structure for grasping. In humans, for example, the index finger is not used to grasp the grip of a tennis racquet or golf club. Thus this specialization of the index finger implies that a different function is being served. The specialization is more prominent in potto(Perodicticus potto). Other families such as the galago, marmoset, tarsiers, and lemur, do not show a comparable specialization of the index finger. Thus the slow loris is a good model for the investigation of genes involved in second finger differentiation, as well as of those involved in transformation of hook to flat nail.
Congenital fusion of the cervical vertebrae is the common dominator of galaxy of skeletal defects with poorly known interrelationship. There are some disagreements whether the lesion is a fusion or non-segmentation. Kang-Kang, male adult giant panda was 10 estimated years old, is completely fused the atlas with the third cervical vertebrae and there are more severe arthritic spurs in cervical vertebrae than in ones lumbar vertebrae. So, it seems that Kang-Kang's cervical spine lesion was occurred by non-segmentation. Lan-Lan, female adult giant panda was 11 estimated years old, is fused the atlas with the third cervical vertebrae and there is arthritic fusion in articular of these vertebrae. So, it seems Lan-Lan's cervical spine lesion was occurred by fusion.
8 cervical vertebrae is rare change and there are little reports in it's figure. Two cases of 8 cervical vertebrae were found in a series of 2 porcupines(Hystrix cristata)and 5 pacas(Agouti paca). The vertebral formula of normal porcupine is 7 cervical vertebrae, 15 thoracic vertebrae, 4 lumbar vertebrae, 4 sacrum vertebrae, 14 caudal vertebrae, but 8 cervical vertebrae specimen reduced one thoracic vertebra. It seems that 8 cervical vertebrae of porcupine may be occurred single homeotic transformation by Hoxb-5 or Hoxa-6. Although the normal paca's vertebrae formula is 7 cervical vertebrae, 13 thoracic vertebrae, 6 lumbar vertebrae, 5 sacrum vertebrae, 7 caudal vertebrae, but 8 cervical vertebrae specimen reduced one lumbar vertebra. It seems that 8 cervical vertebrae of paca may be occurred double homeotic transformations by Hoxb-5 or Hoxa-6 and from Hoxc-6 to Hoxa-10.
A simple shape of diverticulum was recognized in all tree shrews examined. It was located about 4.0 to 5.5cm from the end of rectum. The diameter of the diverticulum was 0.25 to 0.40cm and its length was 0.7 to 1.2cm. This structure might be a primitive form of cecum. If so, the tree shrew's large intestine(4.0〜5.5cm)is much shorter than its small intestine(59〜67cm). The cecum's form has been regarded as an important index of digestive canal's inter-species evolution. A short tubular diverticulum may be a primordial form of the cecum.
A case of feline infectious peritonitis(FIP) in a manul(Felis manul)was studied. The manul was referred because of sudden depression and anorexia. The hematologic and biochemical findings revealed anemia, severe lymphopenia, neutrophil left shift, increased levels of total protein, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Serum electrophoresis revealed hypergemmaglobulinemia. Urinalysis showed proteinuria and occult blood. Serologically, high FIPV antibody titre was present(1:25,600), but feline leukemia virus(FLV) antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus(FIV) antibody were not present. At necropsy, kidneys were enlarged and had multifocal to coalescing white nodules in the cortex. The liver showed several necrotic foci in the parenchyma. Effusion in the body cavities were absent. Histologically, varying degrees of necrosis and pyogranulomatous inflammation accomopanied by vasculitis were observed in the renal cortex, liver, lymph nodes and pleura. FIPV antigens were detected in macrophages of pyogranulomatous lesions by direct fluorescent antibody technique. The present case was diagnosed as non-effusive form FIP, and should alert zoo veterinarians to the possibility of FIP infection in wild Felidae maintained in zoos.
A male young California sea lion(Zalophus californianus)suffered from epileptiform seizures many times from 1990. Because the symptoms of those seizures had been similar to epileptic seizures, the administration of oral medication of phenobarbital at about 2.0mg/kg had begun, and the frequency of the seizures reduced drastically. The seisures are almost controlled by this medication at the same dosage at the present 1997. Blood samples were taken to check the serum concentration and side effects of phenobarbital. There is a moderate increace in Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase(GGT).
In March 1997, about 20 years old male Humbolt penguin died at Niigata city aquarium. At necropsy, the penguin has 1.5 cm diameter black mass on surface of upper bill. Black mass was observed at all organs. This was diagnosed as a melignant melanoma by light microscopy.