The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental condition by drug resistant and molecular epidemiological analysis of Staphylococcus isolated from raccoon dogs and Japanses Black bears. Nineteen out of 26 raccoon dogs were isolated S. delphini and ten out of 35 bears were isolated S. aureus and S. warneri A respectively. Eight out of 26 wild raccoon dogs have staphylococci that were resistant to at least one of the drugs tested. Six out of 35 wild bears have resistant staphylococci. The genomic DNAs of 37 staphylococci of raccoon dogs and bears were cleaved with restriction endonulease SmaI and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Two strains of S. sciuri isolated from two bears of the near areas were shown a same DNA pattern. It is indicted that these two strains of tetracycline resistant were infected from human to bears.
By using preserved testes and epididymis obtained from ten dead individual captive male giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata and G. c. tippelskirchi) raised in the zoological gardens in Japan, an evaluation of the age of sexual maturity was attempted. Histological observation using HE and PAS-hematoxylin stainings revealed the existence of spermatozoa in the testes and epididymis in giraffes older than 5.9 years of age. Immunolocalization of P450scc in the testes appeared in the individuals at 2.5 years of age and 5.9 years of age and older. The estimation of the age at the first successful copulation was also attempted by reviewing the studbook in the Japanese zoological gardens between 1907 through 2000 and this revealed the most frequent age to be between three to five years. These results are coincident with the results obtained by histological observation. The lowering of the breeding age was observed in the captive giraffes. It was speculated that the lowering of the breeding age in the captive giraffe may be caused by the absence of older male giraffes which usually obstruct copulation by the younger males in the wild.
Among 115 necropsy cases (1952-2004) of captive Japanese cormorants that were used for UKAI-a traditional Japanese fishing method-three Japanese cormorants (Phalacrocorax capillatus) were diagnosed with gout on the basis of gross and histological findings. At necropsy, visceral serosa, especially pericardium and hepatic capsule, thickened by chalk-appearing urate were observed. Urate was also observed in the parenchyma of kidneys. Histopathologically, amorphous eosinophilic urate was heavily deposited in the thickened serosa and ureters. Severe squamous metaplasia and keratinization of the ureteral epithelium were observed, and the ureters had dilated due to the accumulation of urate and keratins along with the infiltration of the heterophils. Tophi were observed in the kidney of two severe cases. Uratic emboli and thrombi were formed in the blood vessels of the liver, lungs, kidneys, and spleen. The cause of hyperuricemia, which is indicated by uratic emboli in the vessels, is the obstruction of the ureter by squamous metaplasia and keratinization. In addition, renal uratic accumulation may promote hyperuricemia and result in heavy deposition of urates throughout the body.
We examined the sex determination of Eudromia elegans, which is a sexually monomorphic species, using a molecular biological technique. Based on the close relationship between tinamous and ratite birds, we performed nested-PCR using primers designed by Huynen et al. (2002) for sexing the ratite bird. As a result, a female specific DNA fragment whose size is about 350bp was amplified. This result indicates that the PCR method in this study is available for the sex determination of Eudoromia elegans.
The cestode Tetrabothrius sp. and the nematode Stegophoms stellaepolaris were collected from the alimental canal of a dead short-tailed albatross (Diomedea albatrus), which was obtained during a field research in Torishima Island in the Izu Islands, Japan. Their morphology and differentiation from other species are described. This is the first report of S. stellaepolaris from D. albatrus in Japan.
A Green iguana was brought to us with a loss of appetite. A definite diagnosis could not be made from physical examinations including X-ray examination and blood analysis, but ultrasonic examination revealed nodular lesions in the liver. Abdominal surgery was performed, and a chicken egg-sized nodule with an uneven appearance and multiple rice grain to soy bean-sized nodules were observed in the liver parenchyma. A diagnosis of moderately-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma was made based on the histopathological findings.
A male southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina), estimated to be a 12-year-old, died suddenly without clinical signs. The animal had performed for an educational talk as usual, eating an average of 35.8kg of mackerel for 10 days, which was 2 days prior to its death. The animal had not been taken any medical treatment due to as the progress of illness was too fast. Gross and histopathological findings indicated pulmonary emphysema, acute catarrhal enteritis, chronic interstitial nephritis with pelvic calculi and atrophy of the lymph nodes. Five different bacteria including Clostridium perfringens A and Clostridium sp., were isolated from the blood sample within 1 hour postmortem.
A wild raccoon dog with poor general condition was rescued and sent to an animal hospital. On physical examination, the raccoon dog showed unconsciousness and bone fracture with neutrophilia. The animal died in spite of 3 day's treatment with administration of lactic Ringer's solution. Pathological examination revealed systemic hemorrhage, formation of fibrin thrombi and multifocal micro-necrotic lesions. These findings suggest that the animal was in a condition of the multiple organ failure resulting from traumatic shock.
A case of uterine leiomyoma in a false killer whale was studied. At necropsy, an approximately 15cm tumor nodule was observed in the right uterus horn, and was diagnosed as leiomyoma by light microscopy. The present case might be the first reported case of leiomyoma in small cetaceans kept in aquariums in Japan.