The survey of the parasitic helminths has been carried out on 96 individuals of pet animals belonging to 15 genera in the order Primates, namely Lemur, Galago, Nycticebus, Perodicticus, Aotus, Saimri, Cebus, Cebuella, Callithrix, Saguinus, Leontidius, Macaca, Cercopithecus, Erythrocebus, and Miopithecus. Consequently, 13 nematode, 1 trematode, 2 acanthocephalan and 2 pentastomid genera (viz., Physaloptera, Rictularia, Dipetalonema, Gongylonema, Streptopharagus, Enterobius, Lemuricola, Crenosomatidae gen., Primasubulura, Globocephalus, Strongyloides, Molineus, Trichuris, Dicrocoeliidae gen., Prosthenorchis, Nephridiacanthus, Armillifer(?) and Procephalidae gen.) were obtained. Most cases of the helminths are the first records of the species from the pet animals transported into Japan.
To determine gastrointestinal parasites of sika deer (Cervus nippon), a total of 134 fecal samples were collected from the ground in three public facilities (Areas A, B and D)and a farm (Area C)in Kanagawa, Saitama and Chiba prefectures, Japan. Each of these areas is shared by both the deer and humans. The numbers of specimens collected in Areas A, B, C and D were 30, 38, 36 and 30, respectively. The specimens were examined by the direct smear method, the sucrose centrifugal-flotation technique and the ether-formalin sedimentation technique. At least three genera of intestinal parasites (Eimeria spp., Dicrocoelium, chinensis, Trichuris ovis) and unidentified nematodes were detected The detection rate of the parasites were as follows: Eimeria spp., Area A: 27%, B:8%, C: 44%, D: 40%; D. chinensis. Area A: 10%, D: 37%; T. ovis, Area A: 7%, B :5%, C: 3%; unidentified nematodes, Area A: 60%, B:11%, C: 14%, D: 7% The faunas of the parasites in the feces were different among the four areas. Although both Areas B and C are located in Chiba Prefecture, the prevalence of Eimeria spp., was remarkably different in these two areas.
Evaluation of dry-chemistry for biochemical examination on the Pallas's squirrel (Callosciurus erythraeus), which is an alien species in Japan, comparing with the wet- chemistry was carried out. Among 13 items examined, the results of GLU, BUN, T-CHO, TG, CRE, TP, T-BIL, IP, AST and ALT showed good correlation (r > 0.95) between dry-chemistry and wet-chemistry. In the rest of three items, ALB, Ca and AMYL, showed relatively low correlation (r < 0.87). The cause of difference was suspected from the blood characteristic of the species, the blood collecting method, substrate used for examination or so. It was suggested this method could apply to the squirrel's blood examination though a further investigation was necessary The baseline values of blood biochemical examination using dry-chemistry among normal adult Pallas's squirrel combined males and females were as follows; GLU: 128.7 ± 81.48 mg/dL, BUN: 20.9 ± 26.64 mg/dL, T-CHO 221.3 ± 79.18 mg/dL, TG: 68.1 ± 29.54 mg/dL, CRE: 0.4 ± 0.20 mg/dL, TP: 5.5 ± 0.65 g/dL, ALB: 3.9 ± 0.65 g/dL, T-BIL: 1.6 + 081 mg/dL, Ca: 8.4 + 0.99 mg/dL, IP: 5.2 ± 2.21 mg/dL, AST: 219.1 ± 211.97 U/L, ALT: 59.3 ± 54.60 U/L, AMYL: 935.4 ± 930.77 U/L.
A 11 years old female Asian elephant (Elaphas moximus) made a stillbirth in January 11,2002. This female revealed the abdominal and the nipples swelling during 2000 and 2001. Serum progesterone (P) , estradiol (E2) and prolactin (PRL) were measured once a month from May 2000 to January 2002 by radioimmunoassay (RIA) . Additionally from September 4, 1999 to January 12, 2002, P and E2 were measured once a week by enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) . The value of P by EIA elevated to the high level on the early April 2000, and thereafter kept the high level until the end of 2001. The level of P started to decrease gradually in December 2001, and on 6 days before stillbirth, the P level suddenly fell down. On the next day of stillbirth, the P value decreased to the level as before April 2000. E2 by EIA did not revealed the regular cyclic pattern before the P level elevated for pregnancy. The P values by both of EIA and RIA positively correlated (Pearson's correlative coefficient:0.763, p<0.01) . E2 and PRL by RIA were almost below detectable level (E2:8.0pg/ml, PRL:0.5ng/ml) . The period of pregnancy estimated from the change of P level by EIA was 640 days.
We compared food digestibility utilizing (1) the rates of food passing through the digestive system, (2) digestion rates of the nutrients including structural and non-structural carbohydrates, and (3) nutrition values and requirements between golden takin (Budorcas taxicolor bedford: Artiodactyla, Bovidae) and Shiba goat (Capra hircus: Artiodactyla, Bovidae) One male golden takin maintained at the Yokohama Zoo and one male and two female Shiba goats at the Experimental Animal Research Institute, the College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University were used in the present study. Chromic oxide (Cr_2O3) was used as a marker to determine the rate of food movement in the digestive system. All the feces were collected for the analysis of food digestibility. The rate of food passing through the digestive system was similar in the golden takin and Shiba goat, with the excretion peak of chrome oxide occurring between 24 and 48 hours after food intake. The digestion rates of all the foods were higher in the golden takin than in the Shiba goat. The maintenance energy requirement for golden takin was 1 71 times the basic metabolic energy, which is lower than that of the Shiba goat which was 2 68 times the basic metabolic energy
Disseminated protothecosis in a Cape hyrax (Procavia capensis) was studied. Severe granulomatous inflammation with myriads of PAS-positive prothothecal organisms, 5 by 5 to 20 by 30μm, were seen in the thickened mucosa in the gastrointestinal tract The kidneys had multifocal granulomas with organisms. Electron microscopy revealed numerous algae-like organisms with obvious cell wall but without chloroplasts in the cytoplasm of macrophages. This case may be the first case of protothecosis in Cape hyraxes.
In the estimated 189th day of pregnancy, bleeding from the vagina of a sea otter (Enhydra lutris) was observed. From the previous day, she had stopped eating fish. According to the result of an X-ray test and her behavior, the fetus was suspected to have been dead. Oxytocin and PGF_<2a> were administered respectively. The doses for oxytocin were 5, 10 and 20 units, and lOmg for PGF_<2a>. Vomiting and hyperventilation were observed after PGF_<2a> was administered. However, a miscarriage did not occur. A caesarean section was carried out, but the fetus had already died (total length 51.6cm; weight 1 93kg) The mother also died without recovering from isoflurane anesthesia(5% for induction and 2-4% for maintained).
One species of pentastomid (Reighardia sternae) was found from a kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) in Hokkaido I., Japan. This parasite species and one species of hypoderatid (Hypodectes sp.) were obtained from a crested auklet (Aethia cristatella) in this island. A case of Hypodectes sp. was the first record of the order Charadriformes.
Two captive mature female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) were trained to provide saliva samples for the purpose of diagnosing of pregnancy at an early stage and monitoring reproductive cycles. Saliva was collected from 1 to 4 times per week from autumn of 1996 to spring of 2000, and the progesterone concentration in the saliva was measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) In spite of differences between the two sea lions used in the study, the data thus obtained allowed us to plot their annual reproductive cycles and to diagnose pregnancy a few months earlier than possible using an ultrasonoscope. A comparison of progesterone concentrations in plasma and in saliva failed to show correlation in one of the two animals included in this study, however it was suggested that refining the sampling method will improve this correlation.
The mammary gland was examined gross anatomically and light microscopically in a female of 25 months later after parturition. The area of the enlarged tissue of the mammary gland was 181.7 cm^2 in left side and 157.2 cm^2 in right side. By light microscopy the tissue of the mammary gland consisted of the alveolus glandulae and the connective tissues The secretary cells and the myoepitherial cells were observed in the alveolus glandulae. Although the clear cytoplasm typical in the lactating females of other species could not be seen in the secretary cells, the secretary products were encountered in the lumen of alveolus. The present findings in the gross anatomy and the histology demonstrate that the mammary gland is active even in the female of 25 months later after parturition, and that such female is in later stages of the lactation period. These data will be effective to discuss the strategy of the reproduction and lactation in some species of the apes including the human