Specimens of parasitic helminths were obtained from 9 amphibians (6 species) and 44 reptiles (19 species) died in Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zoo between 1994 to 1996. Four species amphibians and 14 species reptiles in the present study were foreign species in Japan. The species of helminths were as follows: 5 orders, 11 families of nematodes (24 species) Abbreviata bufonis, Alaeuris geochelone, Batrachostrongylus longispiculus, Cosmocercoides pulcher, Falcaustra pahangi, Hexametra sp., Macdonaldius oschei, Mehdiella microstoma, Meteterakis sp., Ophidascaris niuginiensis, Orneriness sp., Ozolaimus cirratus, O. megathphlon, Parapharyngodon maplestoni, Physocephalus sp., Polydelphis sp., Rhabdias horiguchii, R. incerta, Serpinema trispinosus, Spinicauda regiensis, Tachygonetria conica, T. dentata, T. microlaimus and Tanqua tiara; 1 order, 1 family of trematode (1 species) Telorchis clemmydis; 3 orders, 3 families of cestodes (4 species) Acanthotaenia shipley, Duthiersia expansa, Oochoristica agamae and Spirometra erinaceieuropaei and 1 order, 1 family of pentastomid (1 species) Raillietiella affinis. The locations of each species in animals were also presented. Today, these amphibians and reptiles are kept as exotic pets in Japan. Most of the helminths obtained from exotic hosts in the present study are not distributed in Japan, but can be introduced with their hosts into this region as non-native parasites.
The Japanese names were listed above the genus level of Mammalia. The Japanese names were principally selected from the established ones including the original Latin meaning in the order level, while the corresponding Latin words were transcribed in the angular Japanese phonetic syllabary in the family level. Although this study did not deal with the taxonomical theory in Mammalia, the order name of Insectivora (Shokuchu-Moku) was replaced by that of Lipotyphla (Mu-Mocho-Moku) from the latest taxonomical conclusions on the chrysochlorids and some fossil groups of the early Eutheria. Some new Japanese names were also needed for the separated orders in the marsupials. We expect that this list in the higher level of the mammalian classification will also contribute to the refinement of the school and adult educations in the future.
This study attempted to clarify the relationship between macroscopic observation of the vaginal vestibule and changes in the blood progesterone level during the estrous cycle of female Asian elephants. Clear congestion was observed extensively on the mucous membrane of the vaginal vestibule when progesterone was at its lowest level. As the level increased, sporadic erythema and swelling as well as papules were observed near the congested area close to the vulva. However, the trend that congestion on the mucous membrane was alleviated as the blood progesterone level dropped was also noted.
The Cocrico (Ortalis ruficauda) is one of the two national birds of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, W.I.; the other is the Scarlet Ibis (Eudocimus ruber). Some observations were made at the Emperor Valley Zoo, where nine birds were kept on exhibit and have been laying and successfully hatching their chicks over a period of three years. In Tobago, five wildlife farmers were interviewed and two out of ten who were sent questionnaires responded. This case study suggested the following: 1] Some people in Tobago were interested and have been rearing the Cocrico in captivity. 2] Almost all these persons also reared other types of wildlife which included agouti; collared peccary; iguana; nine banded armadillos; opossums; ocelot; common tegu; parrots; and Curvier dwarf caimans. 3] Cocrico will lay and incubate eggs on the ground or in prepared nest boxes and this species did not demonstrate seasonality of laying in captivity.
20-year-old male and a 6-year-old male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), both born in captivity, were suspected of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in August 1999. The older dolphin died and E. rhusiopathiae serotype 2 was isolated from his blood samples. The younger dolphin recovered from subacute erysipelas by administering sultamicillin tosilate (15mg/kg, BID) and doxycycline (8mg/kg, BID) although skin lesions were showing. Antibody against E. rhusiopathiae serotype 2 in the sera from these dolphins was detected.