I give medical treatment as a veterinarian in some zoo and aquarium, and get cooperation of many people every day. Thanks to them, therefore, I can do "research". It is repeated routinely in the zoo and aquarium that we know things we did not know about the animal, and I think that such a thing became the seed of the research. The research for me is to transmit and share new knowledges useful for many people. Although it was difficult by myself to grow the seed of the research which is scattered a lot in the zoo and aquarium, the cooperation with many research friends of the workplace and university was able to grow it. We study the methods of the early detection and early treatment in penguin’s aspergillosis, blood collection from brown bear without anesthesia, the brown bear skin glands, and the method of the brown bear sperm collection. These studies were means to solve a reproductive problem or the friction between the wild animal and human, or to carry out a necessary stage of the treatment. The beginning of research is so various, and all research themes were born from daily life in the zoo and aquarium. The cooperation and communication with many people are important for the research. I think that the research makes rapid progress by communication. I will continue to do my best for human and animals considering the importance of communication.
Husbandry training not only is useful for health care, but also can be applied widely to research and others. Husbandry training based on behavioral analysis brings extremely low invasiveness as a result and also is useful in a point of view of animal welfare. Those are the reasons why it becomes more important in the research at the zoo. In some zoos in Japan, husbandry training has been adopted, but it is currently limited to some staffs in charge and to some animal species. We have actively used husbandry training and already trained 50.9% of all the species for the palpation and subcutaneous injection. We presented about these techniques in the conference etc. Husbandry training has possibility to promote the researches peculiar to the zoo. In husbandry training, on the other hand, there are risks that basic rearing management becomes neglected. We think that husbandry training is a means but not a purpose. Husbandry training must become one of the techniques to play original roles of the zoo by using data acquired by husbandry training with the guarantee of animal welfare for studies.
We adopt husbandry training for measurement of body weight and body temperature, and blood collection into many animal species as the rearing management at Omuta city zoo. Adopting husbandry training, it has enabled, by only behavioral restraint, the medical examination and examination of the primates and big cats without the mechanical and chemical restraints. Hematological and biochemical values were shared with an another zoo. So that we made good use of health control by stored data. Some animals were incorporated in sperm collection. Therefore, husbandry training has possibility to contribute to the breeding of zoo animals. If regular blood collection is possible by husbandry training, we are able to understand the blood kinetics of drags. So that, it may contribute to the development of the veterinary care of zoo animals. Taking in husbandry training, it could increase to get many knowledges. If we cooperate with research institutes based on these knowledges, the study and veterinary care of zoos will be developed.
Currently, the number of the research by Japanese zoos and aquariums is quite limited. Although all institutions are suffering from a shortage of the research funds and workers, the biggest issue is the luck of know-how. This article introduces the following 5 steps about the research method which the author has actually conducted in the zoo: ①Setting up the research purpose, ②Collecting the data, ③Hypothesis verification approach, ④Considering the meaning of the result and ⑤Publishing the result as an oral presentation or a manuscript. The author expects that this information contributes the invigoration of the research by zoos and aquariums in the future. Extending knowledge and information obtained by zoos and aquariums to the public is one of the important roles. In addition, the research activity might be useful to enhance the specialty of the staff. The author hopes that many staffs start the research by themselves.
The morphological characteristic of the tongue of a neonate Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) was observed on gross and with scanning electron microscopy. The tongue was oval shaped, and had the marginal papillae of various forms on the both sides of the anterior part. Three types of papillae (dome-, short cylindrical- and club-shape) were found on the surface of the tongue. Dome-shape papillae were distributed on the anterior surface of the tongue, and the short cylindrical- and club-shape papillae were distributed on the several grooves of the posterior surface of tongue. The connective tissue cores of these papillae were dendritic shape, fist-like, and cauliflower-like shape, respectively.