There are several problems to be overcome in the 21st century. They are reduction of environmental pollution, conservation of environment and control of global warming (eco-health), and there is also a problem of food crisis and population explosion. Stable food supply (food security) to eliminate poverty and hunger is a pressing issue. If globalization has been performed, however, economic disparity and cultural differences in religion are staying as problems easily unsolved. These issues are complex and relate to each other, and as a result many infectious diseases (infection of wild animals, including domestic animals and zoonosis) will be emerged. In the 21st century, regulations of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases are the most pressing issue. OIE wildlife disease notification system is based on the strategy and tactics put this recognition. In this talk, I will introduce new projects of Japanese administration offices concerning to this OIE strategy.
The rapid spread of emerging infectious diseases is a serious global environmental problem that is threatening humans, wildlife, and livestock worldwide. There is an important environmental component to infectious disease. While pathological studies inform effective disease treatment, study of disease ecology - the interactions between pathogen, host and human actions that may create or eliminate ‘fertile’ disease environments - is necessary for prediction and prevention of disease outbreaks. This study will help experts respond to emerging infectious diseases proactively, before they become a major health threat, through an understanding of environment - pathogen - human linkages. By doing so, the study will contribute to the safe coexistence of humans with pathogens to realize long-term societal security ((http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/z/index.html)). In this paper, a hypothesis on structure of disease outbreaks, the methods to analyze the environment - pathogen - human linkages, and some results obtained to date were described.
Recently, infectious diseases, such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), and Non-infectious diseases due to environmental pollutants have threaten not only the health of people and domestic animals but also the health of wildlife and are directly and indirectly related to human activities. In spite of these concerns of wildlife disease outbreaks and potential risks, Japan does not have any governmental infrastructure to address wildlife health. On the other hand, governmental agencies, universities, and other organizations in several countries have collaborative systems among different agencies for management of wildlife health. In this report, first, the context of Conservation Medicine and the current circumstances that surround wildlife health issues in Japan were reviewed. Secondly, wildlife health systems in the US and other countries were discussed. In addition, experiments of Conservation Medicine at the local levels in Japan were introduced. Finally, appropriate wildlife health management systems for Japan considering different backgrounds of each studied country from social, legal, and economic perspectives were proposed.
Between 1st Sep. 2005 and 31st Aug. 2009, Nakatsu animal surgery in Osaka took in 20,987 animals. This included 3,800 dogs, 2332 cats, and 14,855 exotic animals. Exotic animals were 1,552 mammals, 7,504 birds and 96 reptiles. Hence, 9,152 animals could be assumed to be animals bred as pets. Remaining, 5,703(27.1％) could be assumed to be from the wild. To import into Japan those foreign wildlife not only changes the original fauna and flora but also threatens the existing wildlife. Therefore, if people of Japan would like to keep some birds or animal as their pets, they should choose more familiar pets such as dogs, cats, java finches, budgerigars and canaries. These animals have been kept for hundreds years and vet surgeons can keep them in a healthy condition easily, More ever because vet surgeons already have a lot of experience in taking care of them, the animals can be skillfully treated.
Japan imports about a million live mammals, birds, and reptiles per year from foreign countries, most of which are sold as pets. Such pets are often kept in the same living space as humans with an impaired immune system, such as infants and the elderly, and may have intimate contact with their human keepers. Therefore it is necessary to have accurate knowledge of the zoonoses caused by these animals. In addition, specialists who must touch various animals, including pets, need to have the latest information on infectious diseases afflicting these animals, for protection of the specialists' own health. Here we introduce some zoonoses recently confirmed in imported animals, and give concrete examples.
JWCS formed its "Committee on the Exotic Pet Industry" in 2009, and focused on following 5 points; 1. Extinction through capture, 2. Alien Species, 3. Bactelia and infection disease, 4. Animal welfare, 5. Smuggling and Illegal trade. In Japan, there was no record of permitted import of Slow Loris from 2000, but they had been available at shops and on web market. In September 2007, slow loris was listed on the CITES appendixⅠ. In 2008, some people were arrested for smuggling and illegal selling of slow loris. As the result of the widely report, new purchase was withheld. There were no smuggling cases of slow loris in 2008 and 2009. It can be said that tightening of regulation has been effective.
Corneal disease is common in all kind of animals and can be primary or secondary to other ophthalmic or systemic disease. To understand this, we must know its physiologic functions and characteristics. It is also ideal to use specific instruments for corneal diagnosis. We have to consider how those animals live, where they live because we face to various kinds of animals then we can keep up with each animal on corneal diagnosis and its treatment. To achieve correct diagnosis, it is preferable to make a diagnostic strategy according to each environment.
Sixty-two lesser Japanese moles (Mogera imaizumii) were captured on the Shonan Campus of Nihon University in Fujisawa City, Kanagawa Prefecture, from May 2002 to April 2004, and their gastrointestinal helminth fauna was surveyed. One species of cestodes, Hymenolepis mogerae, and 4 species of nematodes, Ascarops mogera, Protospirura pseudomuris, Parastrongyloides winchesi and Tricholinstowia talpae, were obtained. This is the first report on the helminth fauna of moles in Kanto District. Parasitism by 2 dominant nematode species, A. mogera and T. talpae showed intensive overdispersion with negative binomial distribution pattern. The factors, which affected the positive-negative infection status and abundance of the 2 dominant species were detected using a generalized linear model. In A. mogera, the main effect of host maturity was significant for the positive-negative infection status, whereas the main effect of host age and an interactive effect of host age and body weight were significant for the abundance in each optimal model. In T. talpae, the main effect of season of capture was only significant for both the positive-negative infection status and the abundance in each optimal model. These results were explained with some ecological features of the host animals, such as solitary habit and use of latrines, and the life cycle characteristics of helminths, such as use of intermediate hosts.
Although lead poisoning cases have been confirmed in Whooper Swans (Cygnus cygnus) in Iwate prefecture, the overall situation has not been invested. We therefore collected blood samples from waterfowl (n=20) and raptors (n=26) rescued because of injury or weakness in Iwate prefecture from October 2008 to September 2009 and conducted blood lead analysis. Evidence of lead poisoning was not found in raptors but was recognized in 10% of waterfowl. Moreover, 25% of the waterfowl exhibited marked lead exposure. It indicated the possibility of some lead exposure in wild waterfowl in Iwate.
The fecal examination was carried out on 53 species of captive animals in Kawasaki Yumemigasaki Zoological Park, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, between December 2007 and September 2010. As a result, coccidian oocysts and/or nematode eggs were found from about half of animal species, and several fragments of Trichuris ovis (Trichuridae) were found from its feces of moose Alces alces administered with ivermectin.
Genetic diversity evaluation of Oriental white storks distributed in the Russian Far East was conducted based on D-loop haplotype data. In addition, to study the relationship between the wild Russian population and extinct Japanese populations, we compared the Russian haplotypes and reported Japanese haplotypes obtained from mounted specimens. The results showed that eight haplotypes with mutations at 18 sites were found in ten individuals. Two types of them were previously reported types and six haplotypes of them were previously unreported type. The haplotype diversity was 0.933. The average of pairwise difference among eight sequences was 0.007. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that there were three evolutionary lineages in the Russian population and the populations in the study area were genetically related to extinct Japanese population.