We investigated the monthly prevalence of Salmonella enterica and feeding habitat in roosting jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) and carrion crows (Corvus corone) throughout a year. Twenty-five (2.2%) Salmonella strains were isolated from 1158 feces at their roosting or pre-roosting assembly places by culture test. The isolates included seven serotypes: Typhimurium, Kentucky, Derby, O4:i:-, Muenster, Agona, and Braenderup. Three and one isolates of Kentucky and O4:i:-, respectively, were resistant to multiple antibiotics. The prevalence of Salmonella in crows at the roosting sites was higher from September to November in 2018 (8/300, 2.7%) than from April to June in 2018 (0/246, 0.0%); therefore, the risk of Salmonella infection in crows varied seasonally. Such seasonal changes in the prevalence of Salmonella might be affected by beginning to use roosts by fledglings, susceptible to infection, in summer. All pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of 13 isolates of Agona were the same, which suggested that the certain Agona strain used has established in a crow population. The crows’ feeding habitat based on pellets was characterized by livestock feed throughout all seasons. This result indicated that crows invaded into livestock areas throughout the year and it was possible that they transmitted Salmonella between livestock farms. It is hoped that this knowledge is helpful to the effective control of Salmonella transmission in livestock areas.
According to current trends in census size and reproduction, the Japanese golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos japonica) is at risk of extinction this century, leading the Japanese government to recognize the subspecies as endangered. It is now the focus of national conservation efforts, yet gaps remain in our knowledge regarding the reasons for the observed population decline and how best to improve the situation. Over recent decades, scientific research concerning golden eagle conservation in Japan, and in other parts of the world, has established a multi-disciplinary body of evidence that should support plans for species restoration. However, until now, these strands of research have been largely separate, limiting the potential benefits offered by an inter-disciplinary approach. In this paper, we provide an integrated review of Japanese golden eagle conservation science, including studies of ecology, genetics, veterinary health and habitat management. We assess the status and trends in the wild and captive populations; identify current and future conservation management interventions and discuss the opportunities for taking an integrated approach to Japanese golden eagle conservation science through in-situ and ex-situ viewpoint. This review, prepared by national and international experts in golden eagle biology and health, describes outstanding scientific questions alongside potential practical solutions. It sets out a framework for applied research that will provide the information and techniques required to successfully reverse the decline in golden eagle numbers, and hopefully secure the long-term future of the species in Japan.
We examined the relationship between serum testosterone and faecal testosterone metabolite levels in a captive northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) using time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay to develop non-invasive testosterone monitoring technique. We found a significant relationship between faecal testosterone metabolite and serum testosterone levels when the faeces were collected approximately one day after blood withdrawal. In addition, faecal testosterone metabolite levels showed seasonal fluctuations that were similar to those found in serum testosterone levels, with higher testosterone levels occurring during the breeding season. These results indicate that serum testosterone levels can be estimated using faecal testosterone metabolite levels. These methods will be a useful tool to non-invasively monitor reproductive cycles of male northern fur seals.
A ball python (Python regius) with a history of sialorrhea and swelling of maxilla died. Gross necropsy examination revealed masses on the mandible, maxilla, subcutaneous in the neck, and on the serosal surface of the liver. On microscopical examination, there was systemic granulomatous inflammation. Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacteroides chelonae, and Mycobacterium genavense were isolated from kidney tissue and the mass of the mandible and maxilla, respectively. Based on these findings, the case was diagnosed as disseminated infectious nontuberculous mycobacterial disease with three clinically relevant Mycobacterium species.