材料
Online ISSN : 1880-7488
Print ISSN : 0514-5163
ISSN-L : 0514-5163
20 巻 , 219 号
選択された号の論文の17件中1~17を表示しています
  • 蒲地 一義, 白岩 俊男
    1971 年 20 巻 219 号 p. 1240-1243
    発行日: 1971/12/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 林 建吉, 幡中 憲治
    1971 年 20 巻 219 号 p. 1244-1250
    発行日: 1971/12/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
  • X線材料強度部門委員会応力測定と弾性分科会
    1971 年 20 巻 219 号 p. 1251-1256
    発行日: 1971/12/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Committee for X-ray Study on Deformation and Fracture of Solid realized the necessity of having full grasp of the level of industrial development and dissemination of the technique for measuring residual stress by application of X-ray radiation. So it was decided to circulate the same specimen round many places, and study the accuracy and variance of the measured values of residual stress. To trace the cause of variance in the results and to improve the measuring technique, three joint studies were conducted from 1966 to 1970 and the results have been compared and discussed. Hereunder is given the outline of the joint studies.
    The 1st joint study was carried out on a carbon steel disc with a diffraction ring of sharp width. In this series of tests both the photograph method and the counter method were adopted for comparison. The difference in the measured values between the irradiations of CoKα rays and CrKα rays were checked.
    The 2nd joint study was carried out on a heat-treated carbon steel specimen with a broad diffraction ring. The counter method with CrKα rays was used. The major object of the study was to investigate the variance in the measured values.
    The 3rd joint study was carried out on the cylindrical surface of a bearing steel with a broader diffraction ring than that of the 2nd round specimen. The target conditions were specified in order to maintain the measuring conditions as constant as possible.
    It is found from these joint studies that there is larger variance in the values measured by the photograph method than those measured by the counter method. The factor has been confirmed to lie in the photography technique in the photograph method of X-ray stress measurent. When the counter method is used, the values measured with the same specimen show a deviation of about ±5∼±10kg/mm2 from the mean value, though with some exception. The wider variance observed in the exceptional cases can be attributed to technical errors in the focussing, inadequate maintenance of instruments, personal errors in measurement and irregularities in the handling conditions.
    It is necessary to get hold of the factor for the variance in the measurement, for the X-ray technique of stress measurement is expected to be most effective in the research of the strength of materials as well as in the practical application. The Division of X-Ray Stress and Strain Measurement has scheduled to continue their studies to clarify the factors causing the variance.
  • X線材料強度部門委員会応力測定と弾性分科会
    1971 年 20 巻 219 号 p. 1257-1271
    発行日: 1971/12/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    It is one of the problems of X-ray stress measurement that the lattice strain measured by X-ray method depends on diffraction plane. Concerning this problem, cooperative works were made by the division of X-ray stress and strain measurement. The specimens obtained from six kinds of common materials, pure irons of 15μ, 30μ, 50μ in grain size, normalized, and quench-tempered medium carbon steels and normalized eutectoid carbon steel, were distributed among the members of the cooperation, and their X-ray elastic constants, ((1+ν)/E)X-ray and (ν/E)X-ray, were measured by using various diffraction lines.
    The results are as follows:
    (1) Average values of whole specimens are,
    ((1+ν)/E)X-ray=5.62±0.14×10-5mm2/kg
    (ν/E)X-ray=1.20±0.07×10-5mm2/kg
    with (211) diffraction of CrKα and
    ((1+ν)/E)X-ray=7.18±0.17×10-5mm2/kg
    (ν/E)X-ray=1.72±0.09×10-5mm2/kg
    with (310) diffraction of CoKα.
    These are about the mean of the theoretical values calculated on the assumption of stress constant model (Reuß model) and of strain constant model (Voigt model).
    (2) In no constant there is any significant difference to be recognized as due to the microstructures of materials.
    (3) Dependency on diffraction plane is recognized in all of these materials, and it is about half of that of Reuß model.
  • 吉田 彰, 川辺 秀昭, 山田 朝治
    1971 年 20 巻 219 号 p. 1272-1277
    発行日: 1971/12/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to clarify the fatigue crack propagation micromechanisms of the annealed and the surface-rolled low carbon steels, the microscopic observation near fatigue crack tip in both the materials have been performed by the use of the optical microscope, the X-ray microbeam technique and the electron microscopic replica method, and the fatigue propagation micromechanisms have also been discussed.
    The results are summarized as follows:
    (1) The fatigue crack propagation rate in the surface-rolled specimen is slower than in the annealed specimen.
    (2) It is found out from the optical microscopic observation near the fatigue cracks that the crack is fairly sharp in the annealed specimen, but broad in the surface-rolled specimen. This fact will show the formation of ramification of microcracks at the tip of the main fatigue crack in the surface-rolled specimen.
    (3) From the results of the X-ray microbeam diffration pattern and of the electron microscopic replica at the crack tip in the annealed and the surface-rolled specimens, the microstructure at the crack tip in crack both the specimens is similar and this microstructure shows distinct substructure, and the fatigue crack is propagated by jointing the microcracks which have been formed by jointing the pores in the plastic region in front of the crack tip.
    (4) Thus the fatigue crack propagation mechanism is the same in its basic nature in common with both the specimens, and the fatigue propagation will be considered as continuation of the crack initiated and accelerated by the stress concentrated at the crack tip.
    (5) The propagation of fatigue crack takes place more slowly in the surface-rolled specimen than in the annealed specimen. What is to account for the difference? The slower propagation of fatigue crack in the surface-rolled specimen than in the annealed specimen is to be traced ultimately to the difference in their initial microstructure hence the slower formation of substructure at the crack tip region of the surface-rolled specimen than of the annealed specimen. Then there occurs crack ramification in the surface-rolled specimen which goes to relax stress, hence the tendency to retard the propagation of crack, in other words, to make its propagation more slowly than it is in the annealed specimen.
  • 幡中 憲治, 川辺 秀昭, 田中 政夫, 山田 朝治
    1971 年 20 巻 219 号 p. 1278-1284
    発行日: 1971/12/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Stage II type fatigue crack propagation processes in 18-8 austenitic steel were studied upon observation of the substructure formed in the vicinity of its fatigue crack, by the X-ray microbeam diffraction technique and by the replica electron microscopic method. The main results obtained are as follows.
    (1) Although 18-8 austenitic steel has very low stacking fault energy, it breeds subgrains in the vicintiy of the fatigue crack, characteristically indistinct and indefinable in observation by microbeam X-ray diffraction technique.
    (2) The area of the substructural zone thus formed in the vicinity of the fatigue crack is small as compared with that formed in the metals where screw dislocation cross slips easily and is nearly limited within the grain that contains the fatigue crack. The fatigue deformation in the grain is remarkably uneven. In this way the X-ray Laue method is considered to be suitable for the detailed investigation of substructure formed in the fatigue deformation area, and various information can be obtained from each grain by its application.
    (3) An α-martensite has been detected in the vicinity of fatigue crack and fatigue crack tip. Fatigue crack can be grown by the repeated cleavage-like fracture of the martensitic structure, and therefore, the fatigue fracture mechanism in 18-8 austenitic steel is considerably different from other metals.
    (4) Well defined cross slip lines are observed in the fatigued 18-8 austenitic steel, but the region in which this cross slip occurs is limited to the spot near the grain boundary. This will suggest that the grain boundary acts as the strong obstruction to dislocation motin.
  • 今井 勇之進, 熊谷 真一郎
    1971 年 20 巻 219 号 p. 1285-1291
    発行日: 1971/12/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The low-cycle fatigue properties of quenched and tempered Fe-21%Ni-0.17%C steel containing 18 and 27 volume percent retained austenite were tested mainly by the X-ray diffraction technique, The fatigue tests were carried out at 20°C under constant total bending strain range of 0.9 1.3 and 1.6% without regard to the mean strain. The results obtained are as follows:
    (1) The carbon steel that contains retained austenite presents its characteristic features regarding its changes in half-value breadth, particle size and microstrain estimated upon its martensite phase value, during its fatigue process under the low cycle fatigue testing. These features are similar to those which are revealed by the carbon steel that does not contain retained austenite.
    (2) The values of steel in half-value breadth, particle size and microstrain, as they are estimated upon its martensite phase, are various, dependent on various factors, such as the stage of crack initiation and failure, the strain range applied and the tempering conditions, so that their mean value determined on the values estimated in the wide diffraction region where cracks have been abundantly initiated, is at the present time far from being adequate to be taken for the constant estimation of the fatigue damage in martensitic steel.
    (3) The amount of martensite in the retained austenisite induced in the course of the fatigue is various, dependent on the tempering conditions preceding the fatigue test, even within one strain field, and the mode of stabilization of the retained austenisite in this case is similar to that of the thermal stabilization.
    (4) Earlier fatigue cracks are recognized as having occurred not only in nonmetallic inclusions and in prior austenisite grain boundaries, but along the edges of martensite leaves.
  • 今井 勇之進, 熊谷 真一郎
    1971 年 20 巻 219 号 p. 1292-1299
    発行日: 1971/12/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Hereunder is presented the report of low-cycle fatigue test made of steel Fe-25% Ni-0.17%C, both quenched and tempered, i. e.
    quenched and then sub-zero treated (18-100% retained austenite)
    tempered (18% retained austenite)
    at room temperature 20°C, in respect rather of the total constant bending strain values within their range than of their mean value. Both thinfilm electron microscopy and optical microscopy were applied, not to mention other techniques, to the study of the process of fatigue, through observation of its X-ray diffraction, in respect of changes in the amount of retained austenite, in the half-value breadth and in its martensite. The results obtained are summarized as follows.
    (1) The changes in the half-value breadth and in the dislocation structure on the austenite or retained austenite phases during the low-cycle fatigue test will respectively be best accounted for by comparing the above mentioned changes in the annealed materials and those in the cold-worked materials.
    (2) As to which part of steel is foremost exposed to the low-cycle fatigue to crack it differs somewhat from martensitic steel to austenitic steel. In martensitic steel early fatigue cracks occur mainly along the edges of the martensite leaves or in the prior austenite grain boundaries, while in austenitic steel, which is apt to be martensitized in the course of cycling strain, they occur mainly in the twin boundaries or in the austenite grain boundaries. In austenitic steel that has been martensitized during fatigue, the edges of the martensite leaves are nearly clean of cracks.
  • 林 建吉, 土居 俊一
    1971 年 20 巻 219 号 p. 1300-1306
    発行日: 1971/12/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Hereunder is presented a report of studies made on the influence of preliminary workings on the fatigue strength of carbon steel. The effects of residual stress and structural change that are produced by cold-workings on the fatigue strength are discussed. For the increase of fatigue strength, in the case of uniaxial deformation like tension or compression, as previously reported, the structural change is considered to be more responsible than residual stress. In the case of biaxial deformation like torsion, however, these fatigue behaviours are not clarified yet.
    In this paper, the effect of torsional preliminary working on the fatigue strength of S45C steel is discussed in comparison with that of tensile and compressive preliminary workings. The results obtained are summarized as follows:
    (1) The residual stress produced by torsional deformation assumes a shearing state in the direction counter to the twisting direction that has been previously given.
    (2) The materials subjected to preliminary workings, in plastic deformation by three kinds of strain, twisting, stretching and compressing, each to equal level of degrees, have shown increase in fatigue strength quantitatively in the descending order as follows;
    twisting strain>stretching strain>compressing strain
    (3) The fatigue limit of twisted specimen continues to increase until such a straining as ε*=0.400, and then it tends steeply to decrease. Considering the stress strate of twisted specimens, it is concluded that the residual stress due to the preliminary working does not affect the fatigue limit, although the apparent stress amplitude increases with the shearing residual stress. The fractured surface is considered as apt to be preliminary influenced by the shearing residual stress.
    (4) From the results of the tension test and the compression test of each strained specimen, it is apparent that the yield point for reversal direction of the deformed direction is lower than that of the annealed specimen because of Bauschinger's effect in the case of stretched and compressed specimen. On the other hand, the yield points in both the tensile and the compressive directions in the case of twisted specimen increase over that of the annealed specimen. These anisotropy of work-hardening is considered to contribute to the result that the fatigue strength of twisted specimen is largest among the preliminary strained specimens in the same amount of equivalent plastic strain by the three kinds of straining processes.
  • 夏目 喜孝
    1971 年 20 巻 219 号 p. 1307-1313
    発行日: 1971/12/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the previous study, a report was given of the studies made of the fatigue strength of induction hardened steel with respect to residual stress, micro strain, and particle size. It has been found since that the micro strain and the particle size are more influencial than the residual stress on the fatigue limit of the induction hardened smooth specimen.
    In the present paper, a report is made of experimental investigation of the relation of hardened depth, stress concentration, residual stress, and the integral width of X-ray diffraction line, to the fatigue strength of induction hardened steel with notches.
    It has been found that all the specimens tested show a linear relation between the endurance limit and the integral width of X-ray diffraction line, regardless either of the stress concentration or of the hardened depth.
    The following similar relation of the notched specimen to that of the smooth specimen between the endurance limit and the integral width is obtained;
    β×σwnwo+C2Bn
    where σwn=The endurance limit of notched specimen
    β=The strength reduction factor
    σwo=The endurance limit at zero integral width
    C2=Constant
    Bn=The integral width of the notched specimen
    The relation between the integral width and the endurance limit is discussed from the physical point of view by analysing the diffraction profile by Hall's method. In consequence it is clarified that the micro strain and particle size have larger influence than the residual stress, on the endurance limit of hardened steel.
  • 蒲地 一義, 谷 昇
    1971 年 20 巻 219 号 p. 1314-1319
    発行日: 1971/12/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    It is the object of the present study to clarify the relations in respect of behaviors between the hydrogen detected by the X-ray line profiles in high tension steels, in the class of 80kg/mm2 charged by cathodic hydrogen, and the hydrogen in the steel immersed in hydrogen sulfide solution.
    As the result of the two tests the following facts have been made clear.
    (1) In the test made by charging annealed material with cathodic hydrogen, the crystals were deformed plastically, and the lattice of the crystals expanded. In the case of quenched and tempered material, and in the case also of the so-called“received”material, the behaviors of hydrogen detected by the X-ray line profiles are mostly static.
    (2) In the test made of annealed material in hydrogen sulfide solution, (immersed in the solution non-stressed or restricted by bending stress), there were little change in the X-ray line profiles though the test was continued until crackings by the stress corrosion began to be observed. This was also the case with the so-called“received”material.
    The following conclusion can be made from the two tests mentioned above: that the hydrogen in the test (1) behaves differently from that in the test (2), and so it is considered that hydrogen is not allowed to invade the lattice of the crystals through hydrogen sulfide solution.
  • 平 修二, 林 紘三郎, 小沢 慎
    1971 年 20 巻 219 号 p. 1320-1326
    発行日: 1971/12/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    One of the important problems respecting the X-ray method of stress measurement is concerned with the residual stress induced in polycrystalline metals by plastic deformation. As reported in a previous paper, the axial residual stress induced in an iron specimen by uniaxial tension does not satisfy the so-called macroscopic equilibrium over the cross section of the specimen if measured with respect to {310} lattice planes by Co-Kα radiation. This phenomenon can be sufficiently interpreted by taking into consideration the elastic and plastic anisotropy of each crystal constituting a polycrystalline aggregate, and the selective nature of the X-ray method.
    In the present study, a thin temper-rolled steel sheet was deformed by stretches given in two alternately orthogonal directions, and the distribution of residual stress induced in the specimen was determined with respect to {310} crystal Planes by application of Co-Kα radiation. The material used in the experiment was also examined in the tension test to see how the flow stress would depend on its direction.
    The experimental results obtained are summarized as follows:
    (1) The anisotropy of residual stress is usually observed on the specimen stretched in two altelrnately orthogonal directions as well as on the specimen stretched only in one direction.
    (2) The compressive residual stress induced in the direction making angles of 0°and 22.5° with the direction in which the preliminary stretch was given, decreases parabolically. It is due to the strain caused by the vertical stretch subsequently given.
    (3) On the contrary, the compressive residual stress, induced in the direction making angles of 45°, 67.5°and 90°with the direction in which the preliminary stretch was given, increases parabolically together with the strain caused by the vertical stretch subsequently given. However, the rate of increase in the residual stress is much less than that induced by stretching only in one direction.
    (4) On the specimen that has been deformed by stretch in two alternately orthogonal directions, there is maximum flow stress in the drirection in which smaller preliminary strain was given.
  • 1971 年 20 巻 219 号 p. 1327-1347
    発行日: 1971/12/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1971 年 20 巻 219 号 p. 1348-1353
    発行日: 1971/12/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 木材と水 (第1報)
    中戸 莞二
    1971 年 20 巻 219 号 p. 1354-1360
    発行日: 1971/12/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1971 年 20 巻 219 号 p. 1362a
    発行日: 1971年
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1971 年 20 巻 219 号 p. 1362b
    発行日: 1971年
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
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