材料
Online ISSN : 1880-7488
Print ISSN : 0514-5163
ISSN-L : 0514-5163
49 巻 , 6 号
選択された号の論文の20件中1~20を表示しています
  • 塩見 治久, 由良 武敏
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 591-595
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    This work was undertaken to survey methods for improvement in the electrical properties of SnO2-glass composites. Glass composites with different particle dispersions of SnO2 and RuO2 in glass matrices were prepared under the various mixing conditions of starting materials. The effects of RuO2/SnO2 ratios and the dispersion state of both conductive particles in the glass matrices were investigated on the electrical properties of the glass composites. The resistivity and the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the glass composite decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing RuO2 content. The glass composite with TCR close to zero was obtained at RuO2/SnO2=25/25(vol%). In this case, the electrical properties of the glass composites were independent of the mixing conditions of the starting materials, i.e. the particle dispersions of RuO2 and SnO2 in the glass matrices. On the other hand, the electrical properties of the samples with small RuO2 or SnO2 content largely depended on the dispersion state of both conductive particles in the glass matrices. In the glass composites with inhomogeneous particle dispersions, the contributions of miner components to the electrical properties of the glass composites were remarkable. In this case, the compensating effect between SnO2 and RuO2 effectively appeared on the electrical properties, and thus the glass composites showed smaller temperature dependence of resistance than that of the sample with homogeneous particle dispersions.
  • 坂本 清子, 山口 俊郎, 中平 敦
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 596-601
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    We have synthesized the pure single phase of aluminium tri-hydrogen bis (orthophosphate) monohydrate [AlH3(PO4)2·H2O] by using hydrophilic organic solvent, with high efficiency. It is a material with layered structure. The optimum condition to prepare it was as follows; the mixtures of 75wt% H3PO4 and Al(OH)3 (0.1mol) (molar ratio of H3PO4 to Al(OH)3=4.0) was refluxed at 94°C for 6 hours under stirring in 1-propanol (200cm3). Shape of products obtained was needle, and its length increased from 5μm to 80μm with increasing the reaction times. The maximal acid strength and amount of acid of solid surface were pKa=+1.5 and 1.81-2.13 (x10-2mmolg-1), respectively. AlH3(PO4)2·H2O changed to AlPO4 (berlinite, cristobalite-form) and Al(H2PO4)3 (B-form, C-form) by dehydration of monohydrate at 160°C.
  • 大島 龍司, 山中 博, 細見 曉
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 602-605
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Sub-micron sized diamond powder was heat-treated in a wet oxidizer or in hydrogen gas. The recovered powder was observed under FTIR to study the radicals adhering to the surface. Also the suspension characteristics of the powder in water were examined in test tubes.
    The results were as follows:
    -Hydrophilic radicals, such as C=O, C-O-C, OH were detected on the diamond as heated in sulfuric-nitric mixed acid.
    -The powder remained in suspension for more than 24 hours in water.
    -The hydrophilic radicals were readily converted to C-H when heated in hydrogen.
    -There were possibilities for controlling the surface condition of sub-micron diamond by heating in either oxidizer or hydrogen.
  • 西川 直宏, 高野 彩子, 古川 俊一, 本多 沢雄, 淡路 英夫
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 606-610
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Porous zirconia/nickel composites were prepared from yttria-stabilized zirconia, nickel and corn-starch powder as starting materials in reduced condition. In expectation of the application to the anode of the solid oxide fuel cell, mechanical and thermal properties of composites with different porosity levels were measured. With increasing additive corn-starch as the pore-former, the porosity of the composites with continuous and constant-sized pores increased. Larger nickel particles were observed in the zirconia network structure. The fracture strength and toughness decreased with increaseing porosity. Especially, the connected pores and cracks at the interface between nickel and zirconia particles have a large effect on the strength of the composites. The specific heat of the porous composites was constant almost. The thermal conductivity increased with nickel content but decreased with the porosity. The latter phenomenon was discussed by assuming a minimum matrix area model or a network model.
  • 佐藤 昌利, 中野 達明, 塩見 治久
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 611-616
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Load propagation mechanisms in semi-dry pressed bodies of granules with 12mass% water content were discussed comparing with those in dry pressed bodies of spray-dried granules. The deformation behavior of granules was investigated under a uniaxial loading condition by a computer assisted image analysis in order to analyze the load propagation mechanisms. It was found that the use of granules with 12mass% water content was effective to obtain densely compacted bodies because they had higher granular density and strength.
    In the primary stage of semi-dry pressing, the rearrangement of granules mainly occurred, and thus the load was scarcely propagated. On the other hand, the deformation of granules was predominant in the middle stage of the process, and the load propagation occurred through piller-like structures formed from the top to the bottom of the compacts. Furthermore, in the last stage, the load was propagated due to the fracture of granules without rearrangement. Also, as compaction proceeded, water in granules was moved to surface or interguranules, and improved lubricating ability between granules and/or between granules and a wall of die.
  • 若杉 隆, 諸橋 裕子, 大田 陸夫
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 617-621
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Amorphous films in the ZnO-SiO2 and TiO2-SiO2 systems were prepared by sputtering method and the amorphous region was determined. The compositional difference in the film from that of the target used to prepare it indicated that the order of sputtering rate is TiO2<SiO2<ZnO. The amorphous region of ZnO-SiO2 system was narrower than that of MgO-SiO2 and CaO-SiO2 systems. Physical properties of these systems were compared. Two possible reasons were suggested for the difference of the amorphous region. One is the difference of glass structure and the other is the defect of oxygen in the amorphous films. The amorphous region of the TiO2-SiO2 system was narrower than that of the ZnO-SiO2 system and this was attributed to the strong tendency for phase separation.
  • 谷口 知弘, 藤田 晃司, 石原 嗣生, 田中 勝久, 平尾 一之
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 622-624
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Triboluminescence has been observed in BaAl2Si2O8 and SrAl2Si2O8 doped with Eu2+ and Dy3+. From comparison between photoluminescence and triboluminescnece spectra, it is found that the emission intensity due to the 4f-4f transition of Dy3+ is larger in triboluminescence than in photoluminescence. It is thought that the crystal field is distorted around the rare earth ions which bring about the triboluminescence; the distorted crystal fields increase the transition propability of partly-forbidden 4f-4f transitions of Dy3+. On the other hand, the broad band due to the 4f-5d transition of Eu2+ shifts to longer wavelengths in the triboluminescence than in the photoluminescence. An increase in splitting of 5d levels and Stokes shift are possible origins for this phenomenon.
  • 飯塚 博, 加藤 元, 五十嵐 加奈, 鹿野 秀順, 高橋 武彦
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 625-630
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    RB (Rice-Bran) ceramics are new porous carbon materials made from rice bran, which is one of the main industrial wastes of Japan. The rice bran is at first mixed with phenol resin, and then, after forming, carbonized in nitrogen or vacuum atmosphere at higher than 900°C. The purpose of this study is to measure some mechanical properties of the RB ceramics. The distribution of pores is almost constant in the carbonized materials and therefore the scatter of compressive, bending strength and fracture toughness is narrow. The compressive strength is about 60MPa, the bending strength is about 18MPa, and the fracture strength is about 0.6MPam0.5.
  • 森山 三千彦, 高木 節雄, 皮籠石 紀雄
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 631-637
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The influence of aging condition on fatigue strength of the 300 grade 18Ni maraging steel has been investigated in relation to the behavior of age hardening and the formation of reversion austenite. In this study, rotating bending fatigue tests were performed for three series of specimens with different aging condition; as solution-treated without aging, aged for various time at 753K which is the temperature applied for the industrial aging treatment, and overaged to form a small amount of reversion austenite. Effect of reversion austenite on fatigue strength was examined using specimens with the same static strength which had been controlled by varying aging temperature and time, namely under-aging or over-aging. The main results obtained are as follows.
    (1) In the case of 753K aging, the fatigue limits of specimens aged for 11ks to 48ks were nearly the same value, although an under-aged (2.8ks) specimen has as much lower value as a solution-treated specimen without aging treatment.
    (2) A small amount of reversion austenite is effective for increasing fatigue resistance. For instance, 2vol% of austenite was enough for improving fatigue limit of the maraging steel used, from 580MPa to 640MPa at the same hardness level of Hv 610.
  • 岡本 和孝, 金田 潤也, 吉成 明, 青野 泰久, 岩田 安隆
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 638-644
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The single crystalline austenitic stainless steels based on 316L were developed to improve their resistance to intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. However the mechanical properties of the single crystals were lower than those of polycrystalline. The precipitation hardening methods were applied to the single crystal for the increase of their mechanical strength by addition of niobium and heat treatments. In this paper, the influences of niobium concentration on the several physical and mechanical properties of these single crystalline austenitic stainless steels were studied. The thermal conductivity, coefficients of thermal expansion and elastic constants of the single crystals were almost the same as those of polycrystalline independently of the niobium concentration. The mechanical properties of the single crystals strongly depended on the niobium concentration and the orientation. In the specimen which contains 1.0mass% niobium, 0.2% proof stress were remarkably improved; 370MPa, 337MPa and 403MPa were obtained in ‹100›, ‹110› and ‹111› orientations at the room temperature. The creep rupture strength and the high cycle fatigue strength were also improved by addition of niobium. In the ‹100›-orientated specimen which contains 1.0mass% niobium, the creep rupture strength at 873K for 103 hours, 245MPa and the high cycle fatigue strength at 773K for 107 cycles, 220MPa were obtained. Furthermore, the single crystalline pipe, bolts and nuts were successfully manufactured for the application of these single crystals.
  • 円柱形状の場合
    小栗 泰造, 村田 一夫, 水谷 勝己
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 645-650
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    A large area of X-ray irradiation causes some errors in measuring the residual stress of the curved surface by using sin2ψ method. To evaluate the true stress of the cylindrical surface, the relation between the errors of measured residual stress and sizes of X-ray irradiated areas was investigated experimentally and analytically. In the experiment masking tapes on the cylinder of tool steel were used to vary the size of the irradiated area. Bragg's X-ray diffractions in the irradiated regions of the cylinder were simulated in the analysis and the residual stresses were calculated according to sin2ψ method. These results show that (1) the magnitude of measured circumferential residual stress σ is smaller than true stress σω, (2) the ratio between two stresses σ/σω and the difference in those stresses ξ are represented by the following approximate relations σ/σω=Mcos{1.92(ζ/ρ)}, ξ=σ[M-1sec{1.92(ζ/ρ)}-1], where M≈1.81(t/ρ)+1, the X-ray irradiated area 2ζ, the diameter of the cylinder 2ρ, and the thickness of the masking tape t, and (3) the magnitude of the measured axial residual stress is hardly affected by the X-ray irradiated area or by the diameter of the cylinder.
  • 北村 貴典, 寺崎 俊夫, 秋山 哲也
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 651-654
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    New shot peening method, which gives larger residual stress and smaller transformation than usual method, is required. In this study, residual stress distributions due to two shot peening conditions were measured by inherent strain method. One shot peening condition was using steel grid which was angular shape. Another was using steel shot which was spherical shape. Residual stress by steel grid was larger than that by steel shot. And inherent strain by steel grid existed on narrower zone than that by steel shot. Moreover, deflection of specimen by steel grid was smaller than that by steel shot. As results, it has been recognized that shot peening using steel grid was very useful. And residual stress distribution can't be estimated by deflection of specimen, on the other hand, inherent strain method is effective to estimate residual stress distribution due to shot peening.
  • 植松 克重, 船見 国男
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 655-660
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper is to study the particle ejecting conditions on the plating efficiency of the mechanical plating of steel by using hard zinc ejecting particles which have iron nuclei. In order to increase the plating rate, effects of mechanical properties of the ejecting powders and plated test specimens and of the ejecting conditions of particles on the adhering quantity of zinc were investigated. As a result, it became obvious that an increment of the ejecting speed of powders and the hardness of plating specimen had significant effect on the adhering quantity of zinc in comparison with particle size. For the size of particle which contains few iron nuclei, the optimum particle size was found to be 0.1-0.2mm in diameter. On the contrary, it was observed that for larger size of the particle, the adhering quantity of zinc was insufficient because of an increment of the peeling off rate of layers. The adhering quantity changed greatly also with an oxidized layer of particle surface in comparison with that of the plating specimen surface. Adhering strength of this zinc layer by the present ejection method was almost same as those prepared by other zinc plating methods.
  • 中東 潤, 吉村 博文
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 661-665
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper describes the mechanical properties of clad plate produced by pure titanium and oxidized titanium with hot rolling. The purpose of this investigation is to make a new recyclable clad plate having mechanical properties equal to those of commercially pure titanium of JIS grades 3 or 4.
    The specimen is commercially pure titanium of JIS grade 2, two experiments were conducted. One is oxidizing treatment, the other is a process in which a clad plate was made experimentally from a combination of both non-oxidized and oxidized titanium. Oxidizing treatment were conducted by subjecting the specimen to a heating oxidizing treatment in air (oxidizing temperature: 873-1273K, holding time: 3.6-36ks), and then a tensile test, a hardness test, and observation of the tensile fracture surface using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were carried out in order to ascertain the mechanical properties of the oxidized material. To make a clad plate, the specimen was produced by sandwiching oxidized material between two sheets of non-oxidized materials. Next, the circumference of the specimen was subjected to TIG welding, and then it was hot rolled. Then, a tensile test, and an element analysis using an electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) were carried out. The experimental results obtained were as follows.
    The tensile strength of the oxidized material increases with increases in oxidizing temperature and holding time. However, when the oxidizing temperature is more than about 1000K, the elongation decreases rapidly in spite of a short holding time. The clad plate produced using pure titanium and oxidized titanium shows tensile properties roughly equal to those commercially pure titanium of JIS grades 3 or 4.
  • 小川 武史, 宮本 輝, 大清水 和憲, 大澤 直
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 666-671
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    A convenient method for evaluating mechanical properties of solder materials was proposed in this study. In the method, Vickers hardness was evaluated by time dependent expression, HV=HV0·tcv, where HV and tv are Vickers hardness and indenting time. Two material parameters, i.e. HV0 and c, are related to the hardness without creep contribution and the significance of creep deformation, respectively. Above method was performed at room temperature for eutectic solders of Sn-37Pb and Sn-3.5Ag aged at three levels of aging temperature, Ta<10°C, Ta=R.T., 125°C (Sn-37Pb) and 160°C (Sn-3.5Ag). Finite element analysis was performed to simulate the Vickers indentation based on the elastic-plastic-creep deformation in order to correlate HV0 and c with yield stress and Norton's law for creep deformation. Using the proposed method, aging effect on the mechanical properties for the two systems of eutectic solders was also investigated.
  • 転位発生限界値のデバイス構造依存性
    太田 裕之, 北野 誠
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 672-677
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    During fabrication of semiconductor devices, the stresses in a silicon substrate sometimes generate dislocations at high temperatures. As most of the dislocations are generated at the stress singularity fields in the silicon substrate, dislocation generation should be discussed with stress singularity problems. In this paper, prediction method for dislocation generation was proposed, and the strength of dislocation generation was measured and described using stress singularity parameters, K and λ. In the experiment, the specimens were silicon substrates with stressed SiN thin-film bands, at whose edges the stress singularity fields were formed. Parameter K was varied by changing the bandwidth, and λ was controlled by changing the shape of the band's edge. The strength was determined by the critical sizes of the bands for the generation. Dislocation-free process of ULSI can be designed to apply the prediction method.
  • 中崎 一之, 井上 達雄
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 678-684
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Primary and secondary CO2 laser beam quenching under traveling heat condition are applied to a Cr-Mo steel block with pro-eutectoid ferrite and pearlite structures, and characteristics of hardness and microstructure in heat affected zone are investigated in relation with beam power. Martensite structure with hardness of 700-800HV0.1 is produced to the depth of 1.2mm after primary quenching operation by laser power of 1100W. When the secondary operation by the power of over 600W is made to once-quenched part, hardened martensite is found to transform into three kinds of structure such as secondary martensite, tempered martensite with bainite and reproduced pearlite, while entire region becomes to much hardened secondary martensite by the power of 1000W. From the experiments, it reveals to possibly control the characteristics of hardened zone and microstructure by choosing the proper condition of primary and secondary beam irradiation.
  • 三井 雅一, 福澤 公夫, 沼尾 達弥, 布田 郁雄
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 685-691
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    In recent years, strengthening concrete structures with FRP sheets using carbon or aramid fibers has gained great interest. In this method, FRP sheets are bonded to the concrete surface, which is roughened in advance using a tool such as a disk-grinder. The bond strength between an FRP sheet and concrete influences the structural behavior of concrete elements reinforced with FRP sheet bonding. The surface roughness has a great influence on bond strength. It is necessary to introduce an evaluating method for concrete surface roughness and to grasp the relation between bond strength and the surface roughness index in order to establish reliable performance from the FRP sheets method. The present study describes the relations between bond strength and various surface roughness indexes. The surface roughness of concrete was varied by changing the treatment methods, such as, sandpaper polishing, disk-grinding, sand-blasting and chipping. The 3D profiles were measured using an optical displacement meter. Surface roughness indexes, maximum depth Dmax, superficial area St, form factor k and the bearing ratio curve were obtained based on the measurements. Bond tests on the concrete treated by above methods were carried out as well. It was found that profile depth CF derived from the bearing ratio curve has the greatest influence on bond strength among the indexes.
  • 2. ポリマーネットワーク系
    麹谷 信三, 浦山 健治, 瀧川 敏算
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 692-698
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 田原 博雅
    2000 年 49 巻 6 号 p. 703-704
    発行日: 2000/06/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
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