材料
Online ISSN : 1880-7488
Print ISSN : 0514-5163
ISSN-L : 0514-5163
50 巻 , 7 号
選択された号の論文の18件中1~18を表示しています
  • 吉岡 靖夫, 秋田 貢一, 鈴木 裕士
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 690-694
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The x-ray elastic constants of sintered polycrystalline alumina and silicon nitride were measured for various hkl diffractions by using x-rays from synchrotron radaiation source (SR). The use of x-rays from the SR enables measurements to be taken at higher and constant Bragg angle 2θ on many hkl diffractions and thus it is possible to measure the stress or the elastic constant with high accuracy. The measurements were carried out on seven hkl diffractions for alumina and four ones for silicon nitride. The results on the alumina were compared with the analytical values obtained from the elastic constants of a single crystal based on the Reuss and Voigt models. The measured values of E/(1+ν) of alumina approximately agreed with the analytical values by the Reuss model and this means that the analytical value on any hkl diffraction can be used as the x-ray elastic constant. On the other hand, the experimental values of silicon nitride were slightly larger than the mechanical value, however, its maximum difference was within 7%.
  • 秋庭 義明, 田中 啓介, 津村 毅
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 695-700
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The propagation behavior of a circumferential fatigue crack in cylindrical bars of a carbon steel (JIS SGV410) and a stainless steel (JIS SUS316NG) was investigated under cyclic axial and torsional loadings. The J-integral range was used as a fracture mechanics parameter. When compared at the same J-integral range, the crack propagation rate under mode III was smaller than that under mode I. Parallel markings perpendicular to the crack propagation direction were observed on the fatigue fracture surface obtained under mode III loading. The residual stresses in the radial direction, σr, and in the tangential direction, σθ, were measured for both mode I and mode III fatigue fracture surfaces. For mode I fracture surface, σr was tension, and was almost constant irrespective of the applied J-integral range. σθ was close to zero for both materials. On the other hand, for mode III, σr and σθ were compression. For SUS316NG steel, the compressive stress of σθ increased with the J-integral range. For SGV410 steel, the change of σθ with the J-integral range was small. The breadth of diffraction profiles increased with J-integral range for both mode I and III. The breadth was found to be a good parameter to evaluate the applied J-integral range.
  • 齊藤 徹, 皆川 宣明, 森井 幸生, 佐々木 敏彦, 広瀬 幸雄
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 701-706
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    For precise stress analysis of engineering materials by diffraction methods, lattice spacing of strain-free materials, d0, must be accurately measured and estimated. Powder diffraction method is a general way of determining the d0. However, preparation of high quality powder sample is actually difficult in that labor, time, knowledge, and technique are required. In this study, we propose a new easy technique of measuring the sample as original process material instead of the powder diffraction method for estimation of accurate d0. The d0 obtained by our technique is estimated from the dAve which is the average of d measured while turning the sample material at random. The strain-free lattice constant, a0, is calculated from dAve(hkl) of some diffraction planes by the extrapolation method. The d0(hkl) of each diffraction plane is converted from this a0. In own method, the d0(hkl) of the extra super duralumin which have the structure of the texture was measured. To examine the reliability of this new method, the d0(hkl) obtained by own method was compared with the d0(hkl) of powder estimated by the general methods which is neutron and X-ray diffraction method. These differences were 8.7×10-6nm or less. These values become 10MPa or less for the stress. This result confirmed that present method could calculate d0(hkl) with enough accuracy for the neutron residual stress analysis.
  • 松英 達也, 英 崇夫, 池内 保一
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 707-712
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Relationship between the structure and the depositing conditions of TiN film deposited by arc ion plating were investigated by X-ray diffraction. Bias voltage and arc current were changed to examine their roles on the structure of TiN films. The structure of TiN film depended on the bias voltage. In the case of a bias voltage at 0V, the TiN films exhibited high {110} orientation, whereas the films exhibited high {111} orientation when the bias voltage was-100V. On the other hand, arc current did not affect the structure of TiN films. {111} orientation was accomplished on the glass substrate when the effect of droplets was reduced.
    The ratio of nitrogen to titanium composition (N/Ti) was observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results of XPS analysis showed that the maximum value of N/Ti was about 0.89 in the TiN films when they had {110} and {111} preferred orientation along the film surface.
  • 鷹合 滋樹, 佐々木 敏彦, 広瀬 幸雄
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 713-718
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The distribution of the residual stress in ground layer of the sintered composite materials was examined with the X-ray diffraction technique. In this paper, Fe-Cr containing TiN particle material was prepared. Specimens were made by powder metallurgy. Macro-and microstresses were calculated by using the rule of mixture. The matrix (Fe-Cr): 310 and the inclusion (TiN): 420 diffractions were obtained with the Co-Kα radiation. The distribution of the residual internal stress was evaluated by the electrolytic polishing. Furthermore, the ground surface was observed by a scanning electron microscope. Influences of the wheel depth of cut, the volume fraction of the inclusion on residual stresses beneath the surface were discussed.
    It was found that the residual stresses in the both phases increased with the increase in the depth of cut. The size of the compressive grinding phase stress zone of Fe-Cr/TiN were about 50μm. The residual compressive stress in the TiN phase decreased with increase in the TiN content. Shear stress σ31 was small regardless of the depth of cut.
  • 小林 裕一, 長沢 潤一, 渡辺 和夫, 佐々木 敏彦, 広瀬 幸雄
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 719-726
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Several crack-free chromium-plating processes by pulse-current electrolysis have been proposed, but the resulting chromium-plating layers usually have high tensile residual stress and often form macro-cracks after plating operations, especially under high temperature of 373K or more. Therefore, there are few actual industrial applications of this technology.
    In this study, residual stress is examined for chromium plating layers formed under various pulse plating conditions (pulse-current frequency, duty cycle of pulse-current, and peak current density) from organo-sulfonic acid baths. Residual stress is evaluated by an X-ray stress measurement method. Consequently, a highly compressive residual stress (-300MPa or more) is obtained under certain plating conditions. Furthermore these chromium-plating layers have higher stability under high temperature than chromium plating layers made by conventional pulse current electrolysis or direct current electrolysis.
    Furthermore, it was cleared that the thermal stability correlates closely with the integral breadth of X-ray diffraction profile.
  • 安井 治之, 広瀬 幸雄, 佐々木 敏彦, 粟津 薫, 楢本 洋
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 727-731
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Hydrogen is a very common contaminant in carbon films. It can strongly influence on mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the films. The analysis of hydrogen is therefore a crucial problem produce the films with the properties required. Ion beam techniques using nuclear reactions are effective for the quantitative determination of hydrogen concentration. A specially designed spectrometer is employed for the detailed determination of hydrogen concentrations by detecting 4.43MeV γ-rays from the resonant nuclear reactions 1H(15N, αγ)12C at the 6.385MeV. In this study, the BCN films were formed on silicon substrate by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD), in which boron and carbon were deposited by electron beam heating of B4C solid and nitrogen was supplied by ion implantation simultaneously. The concentrations of hydrogen in BCN films were measured using RNRA. The mechanical properties of BCN films were evaluated using an ultra-micro-hardness tester. It was confiremed that the hardness of BCN films increased with increasing the concentration of hydrogen.
  • 英 崇夫, 森口 忠和, 日下 一也, 松英 達也
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 732-737
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the industrial fields, aluminum (A1050) and aluminum alloys (A5052 and A2017) are widely used in mechanical components. However, their application is essentially restricted because of their low strength and low hardness. In the present study, TiN film deposition was tried on a surface of aluminum and aluminum alloy substrates by means of an arc ion plating. The aim is to develop thick TiN film on aluminum based materials in order to get strong wear resistance.
    In order to minimize an increase of the substrate temperature throughout the deposition, the process was planned to deposit TiN intermittently with cooling intervals of 120 min. Arc current, bias voltage and coating time were changed to examine their roles on hardness and wear property of TiN films. X-ray diffraction study revealed (100) preferred orientation in the film deposited under the condition of low bias voltages, whereas (111) under high bias voltages. No cracks were observed in the films deposited on the A5052 and A2017 substrates under the bias voltage below -30V, however, they occurred in the films deposited higher than -20V on A1050 substrate. Low bias voltage should be essential to obtain thick TiN films on aluminum-base materials.
    Wear test was made by a ball-on-disk type machine. The depth of wear traces observed in the films with the thickness of 9μm on A1050 substrate was about 40μm. However, no wear traces appeared in the other films deposited under low bias voltages; regardless of film thickness. Although the hardness of the film was reduced with using low bias voltage, the wear property was greatly improved by thick TiN coatings.
  • 村瀬 勝彦, 和田 均, Norman JONES
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 739-744
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study examines the conditions of the transition from progressive plastic buckling to dynamic plastic buckling on thin-walled circular tube with an increase in the impact velocity. This report deals with the discussion of numerical analysis for buckling modes. Their buckling modes are progressive plastic buckling, dynamic plastic buckling and funnel-form type deformation. FEM were used for sixteen kinds of ends conditions. The transitions of their plastic buckling modes of circular tube for impact axial loading were obtained for change of initial deformations and impact velocities.
  • 原田 真樹, 林 知行, 軽部 正彦, 飯田 昭光, 小松 幸平
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 745-750
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    To investigate the effect of modulus of elasticity (MOE) of glued laminated timbers (GLTs) on the mechanical properties of drift-pin joints, we conducted static loading tests of the joints using GLTs with different MOE (5.9, 7.9, 9.8 and 11.8GPa). Species of GLTs were Sugi (Japanese cedar; Cryptmeria Japonica D. Don) for specimens with 5.9GPa MOE, and Karamatsu (Japanese larch; Larix kaempferi Carr.) for other specimens.
    Two kinds of loading tests were carried out; “Parallel type” in which tensile load was applied parallel to the grain, and “Perpendicular type” in which bending load was applied perpendicular to the grain. Loading pattern was a monotonic for both types.
    We investigated “five percent offset value” specified in ASTM-D5764, “initial stiffness” calculated by the ratio of a bearing stress to a unit bearing deformation, and “degree of anisotropy” defined as the ratio of the offset value (or the stiffness) of “Parallel type” to that of “Perpendicular type”.
    Positive correlation between the offset value and MOE was observed in “Parallel type”, but not in “Perpendicular type”. Standard deviation of the offset value and initial stiffness in “Parallel type” were higher than those in “Perpendicular type”. The existence of adhesive layers slightly increased the average of the offset value and initial stiffness. The correlation between degree of anisotropy and MOE was weak in both types.
  • 石井 清, 今中 誠, 中山 英明, 児玉 斎
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 751-757
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Rubber modified epoxy adhesive has been widely used to structure fields due to its high toughness. The importance of fracture mechanism of the rubber-toughened epoxy is the void formation by rubber particles, where damage zone enclosing the voids propagates in the vicinity of the crack tip. Hence, in considering strength of the rubber modified epoxy, the damage behavior should be taken into account. However, there are few studies about the fatigue behavior of the rubber modified epoxy adhesive discussed from the viewpoint of damage mechanics.
    In this study, the damage behavior of the adhesively bonded butt and scarf joints under cyclic loading conditions has been studied using a rubber modified epoxy adhesive, where stress triaxiality in the adhesive layer can be varied in a wide range by changing the scarf angle. The strain and crack length of the adhesive layer were monitored by using strain and crack gages pasted on the adhesive layer. A damage parameter is introduced to depict the degree of fatigue damage. Based on these parameters, the effect of stress triaxiality on damage development behavior was discussed.
  • 宇都宮 登雄, 杉本 健, 真壁 朝敏, 飯田 國廣
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 758-763
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Plain and fretting fatigue tests of inconel alloy NCF690 were carried out under tension-compression axial loading. In the fretting fatigue test, the contact pad of stainless steel SUS405 was clamped and the pressure of the contact pads was changed from 60 to 200MPa. The fatigue strength in fretting fatigue substantially reduced comparing with that of the plain fatigue and fundamentally decreased with the increase of the contact pressure, but did not change in the region that the contact pressure was higher than 150MPa. The friction force amplitude and the relative slip amplitude increased with the increase of the stress amplitude. However, the friction force amplitude became almost constant in the region that the stress amplitude was high, when the contact pressure was equal to 60MPa. After that, measuring the strain information in the neighborhood of the contact surface of specimen and pad, the applicability of the strain interference method to the detection of the crack initiation in fretting fatigue was investigated. It was shown that the crack initiation life at which the crack length reached about 0.5mm could be detected by the strain interference method.
  • 顔 旭, 加藤 昌彦, 中佐 啓治郎, 森田 賢二
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 764-771
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Gas nitriding was applied to pure titanium specimens and the tensile tests were carried out on the specimens in order to evaluate the fracture strength and delamination strength of titanium nitride (TiN and Ti2N) layers. With increasing load, both the TiN and Ti2N layers were divided by parallel cracks repeatedly and only the TiN layer was delaminated after a large plastic deformation of substrate. The fracture strength of TiN layer was estimated by an extrapolation method from the relationship between inverse of crack intervals and nominal tensile stress. Interfacial fracture toughness between TiN and Ti2N layers was almost independent of nitriding temperature and nitriding time, and it slightly increased with increasing thickness of TiN layer.
  • 山根 秀樹, 小久保 武, 高橋 雅興, 堀内 徹
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 772-777
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Dynamic viscoelasticity and tribological properties of epoxy resins cured using four curing agents with various chain length were studied. Viscoelastic functions of the resins were similar in form and the glass transition temperature Tg decreased with increasing chain length of the curing agent. Hence, these epoxy samples showed simialr viscoelastic properties in a temperature range in reference to Tg. Changes in the velocity and the applied pressure in the tribological tests affected the temperature of the friction interface. Observation of the wearing behavior revealed that there were three different temperature ranges in reference to Tg. At temperatures below Tg-100°C all the samples showed a fairly low coefficient of friction, leaving flake like wear particles. At temperatures above Tg-100°C, the coefficient of friction increased with temperature. In an intermediate temperature range about 20 to 100°C less than Tg, roll debris came out. At temperatures near and higher than Tg, samples were severely damaged and the wear rate was extremely high.
  • 村山 理一
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 778-782
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    A Lamb wave-mode electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) which makes use of the Lorenz force and magnetostrictive effect is produced as a device to evaluatethe r-value of stainless steel sheet. Correlation between fundamental characteristics of this device and r-value obtained from uniaxial tensile test is examined for stainless steel and low carbon steel sheets. It is confirmed that the use of this device enables the evaluation of the r-values of ferrite stainless and austenite stainless steel sheets as well as low carbon steel sheets. It is also shown that the value of Δr whichgives the planar anisotropy of a sheet can be evaluated in good accuracy for the stainless steel sheets than for the low carbon steel sheet.
  • 鈴木 裕士, 秋田 貢一, 吉岡 靖夫, 三沢 啓志
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 783-789
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    X-ray stress measurements in a local area of a single crystal silicon were carried out using synchrotron radiation. In the experiment, the beam line 3A (BL3A) in the Photon Factory of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Japan, was utilized. The χψ-oscillation method was used as the oscillation method of a specimen for detecting a perfect diffraction profile. In the case of using synchrotron radiation, a wavelength can be selected using a monochromater so that the diffraction angle may become high angle where the highly-accurate strain measurement is possible. Therefore, accuracy of the stress measurement is improved more than using characteristic X-rays. The stresses in three steps were applied on a specimen using a four-point bending device. The diffraction angles of three different diffraction planes were measured in each step using the φ50μm collimator, and the stresses were calculated from the peak shift. The measured stresses agreed well with the applied stresses evaluated using a strain gage. Also, the stress distribution near the edge of the circular hole of the diameter of 400μm which was made on a single crystal silicon was measured using the φ30μm collimator. The stress was applied using a four-point bending device, and the stresses were measured at five points from the edge of the circular hole to 240μm. The measured stress distributions agreed with the FEM result. However it is necessary that the beam size is more decreased in order to obtain the stress distributions more accurately.
  • 佐藤 亮介, 武田 孝志, 安藤 直人
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 790-795
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    During 1990's, wood products imported from Europe into Japan have rapidly increased, and major products of them are spruce lumber from northern Europe and so on. The primitive purpose of the study was to assess mechanical properties of these imported lumber and glued laminated timbers (glulams) as structural members for houses. Groups of tested glulams were two: spruce glulams imported from Finland (6sizes) and manufactured glulams using spruce lumber imported from Finland (5sizes). The latter glulams were roughly composed of homogeneous-grade lumber, which were selected according to dynamic Young's modulus values measured by the longitudinal vibration method. Static bending tests were conducted by loading at two one-third points of the span after measuring dynamic Young's modulus by the tapping methods. Dynamic Young's modulus was measured by longitudinal vibration (El) and flexural vibration, whose directions were horizontal (Eh) and vertical (Ev) in the direction of the adhesive face of the glulam. For a part of tested glulams, measurements of shear rigidity were done by the torsion vibration method.
    For the imported glulams, mean MOE was 11.7GPa, but the MOE values were affected by depth/span ratio. The average shear moduli G by static and dynamic tests were 0.581GPa and 0.708GPa, respectively. The best indicator for estimating MOE was Eh among Eh, Ev and El based on correlation between MOE and dynamic Young's modulus.
    For all manufactured glulams, bending tests were conducted by loading at the third points of the constant span. The results showed that the increase of the specimen depth lowered mean MOE and mean modulus of rapture (MOR) for each size. The adjusted MOR were calculated by the standard E conversion proposed by Hayashi, then the adjusted MORs were not apparently influenced by depth. Then we guessed that depth effects on MOR might be very small in case of eliminating effects of shear deformation.
  • 吉永 隆治
    2001 年 50 巻 7 号 p. 796-802
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
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