材料
Online ISSN : 1880-7488
Print ISSN : 0514-5163
ISSN-L : 0514-5163
30 巻 , 331 号
選択された号の論文の16件中1~16を表示しています
  • 猪股 俊司
    1981 年 30 巻 331 号 p. 323-329
    発行日: 1981/04/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 宮崎 政行, 吉岡 純夫, 土方 明躬
    1981 年 30 巻 331 号 p. 330-335
    発行日: 1981/04/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper presents the low cycle fatigue properties of two kind of solder materials and evaluation method of thermal fatigue life for solder joints. Thermal stress at the solder joint of semiconductor devices subjected to thermal cycle is discussed. Thermal fatigue test results of semiconductor devices are compared with the predicted life obtained from the low cycle fatigue strength of solder.
    The results obtained are as follows:
    (1) The mechanical shear properties depend on the test temperature and strain rate for two solder materials (60 Pb-40 Sn and 88 Pb-10 Sn-2 Ag). The low cycle fatigue strength of these solder materials can be expressed by equation (1). This equation (1) is valid for the test temperature range from 20°C to 135°C and the hold time up to one hour.
    ΔγT·Nf0.85=14.0 (1)
    where ΔγT and Nf represent the total strain amplitude and the number of cycles to failure, respectively.
    (2) By taking the nonlinear stress-strain properties into account, a theoretical analysis was made to obtain the thermal shear strain in the solder joint. The effects of major structural dimensional factors on shear strain were clarified.
    (3) Thermal fatigue life tests of semiconductor devices were conducted and the resistance change method was adopted to detect the fatigue failure of devices. The predicted life was found to be in a rather safety side compared with the measured life.
  • 古城 紀雄, 瀧本 純右, 堀 茂徳
    1981 年 30 巻 331 号 p. 336-339
    発行日: 1981/04/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Interrelation between superplastic deformation and internal friction was investigated using an Al-Cu eutectic alloy. The increment of internal friction at room temperature due to deformation, ΔQ-1, increased with the amount of strain under non-superplastic deformation conditions, while under superplastic conditions the change in ΔQ-1 was relatively small. Strain amplitude dependence was observed in ΔQ-1 of specimens deformed at lower temperatures or higher strains. An analysis of the strain amplitude dependent internal friction was carried out by using Granato-Lücke theory. It was found that ΔQ-1 was proportional to the dislocation density ∧. It was also found that the strain rate sensitivity of flow stress m (σ=kεm, σ: flow stress, ε: strain rate, k: constant) was proportional to the negative value of ΔQ-1 or ∧. Changing characteristics of ΔQ-1 for various strains and deformation conditions showed a good correspondence to the results of the direct observation of dislocation structures.
    These results are consistent with the superplastic deformation mechanism proposed previously, which involves the grain boundary sliding compensated by the diffusional process predominantly and the dislocation motion acting to decrease the m value.
  • 藤田 春彦, 田中 学, 飯塚 博
    1981 年 30 巻 331 号 p. 340-345
    発行日: 1981/04/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The effect of microstructure on tensile properties and creep fracture has been investigated using austenitic 21-4N steel.
    In tensile tests of 21-4N steel, the ductility decreased owing to a fracture of the grain boundary reaction (GBR) nodules in the temperature range from 20°C to 500°C, while it increased by inhibition of grain boundary sliding due to the nodules at temperatures above about 600°C. 0.2% proof stress decreased with an increasing amount of GBR, but tensile strength did not decrease very much except at large amount of it.
    It was found in 21-4N steel that recovery at elevated temperatures was more difficult to occur in the GBR nodules with rod-like precipitates than in the grains with spherical precipitates. In steels with less than 36% of GBR, a remarkable decrease in flow stress occurred at lower temperatures when the amount of plastic deformation increased. An increase in strain rate of tensile test at 600°C resulted in a large decrease in ductility and a noticeable increase in flow stress at smaller amount of plastic deformation when it caused a fracture of the nodules.
    In notched creep rupture tests of 21-4N steel at 700°C, a ductile fracture at the interface of the nodules occurred in the notch-strengthened steel with GBR nodules, while grain boundary facet was observed in the notch-weakened one without the nodules. Furthermore, it was considered in 21-4N steel without the nodules as well as in SUS 304 steel that the creep fracture was caused by the grain boundary sliding and the deformation of grains, even under the creep condition where round type cracks were found at grain boundary.
  • 戸谷 眞之
    1981 年 30 巻 331 号 p. 346-352
    発行日: 1981/04/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    An array of continuously distributed screw dislocations piled up against an elliptic cylindrical rigid inclusion was analyzed. Both uniformly applied shearing load at infinity and internal stress opposing the movement of dislocations were taken into account. Based on the analogy between continuously distributed dislocations and a crack, the stress function of the pile-up problem was determined by the complex variable method in the theory of elastic cracks. The pile-up tip was assumed to be away from the matrix-inclusion interface, its distance from the interface being determined by the condition that the stress should be finite everywhere in the solid. The stresses on the interface and on the slip-plane were then calculated and some typical stress distributions were graphically shown. The condition for initial debonding of the interface was also discussed. The critical debonding load was expressed by the sum of two terms, one the friction stress and the other inversely proportional to the square-root of the slip-line length.
  • 田中 千秋, 大場 敏夫
    1981 年 30 巻 331 号 p. 353-359
    発行日: 1981/04/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Reloading stress relaxation tests have been carried out to clarify the effect of retightening on stress relaxation behaviors of high temperature bolts used in a steam turbine. The tests were made for 1 Cr-0.5 Mo-0.25V and 12 Cr-1 Mo-1 W-0.25V bolting steels at 500°C and 550°C, respectively. Repeating loadings were undertaken up to twenty-five times when stress was relaxed to a specific value of residual stress. The initial stresses (σ0) at each reloading for 1 Cr-0.5 Mo-0.25V and 12 Cr-1 Mo-1 W-0.25V steels were 30.3kgf/mm2 and 27.9kgf/mm2, respectively, which correspond to the values of stress for the total strain of 0.20 percent. The specific residual stresses were 0.8 σ0, 0.7 σ0, 0.6 σ0, 0.5 σ0, and 0.4 σ0kgf/mm2.
    The reloading stress relaxation data obtained for both steels showed that the relaxation strength increased with increasing number of loadings, but it became constant or somewhat decreased above a certain number of loadings.
    Discussions were made for the dependence of residual stress, creep strain and testing time on the relaxation plastic strain rate, and the dependence of total strain on the relaxation plastic strain rate versus residual stress relations. It was found that the strain hardening law and the time hardening law for transient creep, and the creep constitutive equations for steady state creep could not be applied to the present data.
    The present paper was forcused on examinations of the accumulated plastic strain versus number of loadings relations and the testing time versus accumulated plastic strain relations obtained when stress was relaxed to each specific residual stress. Numerical analysis was made for these relations using an inductive procedure. An empirical equation to describe the reloading stress relaxation data after relaxing stress to the specific residual stresses for both steels was proposed as follows:
    log ti=a0+a1log(σ0ri)+a2{log(σ0ri)}2+b log N
    where ti is the testing time, σri is the specific residual stress, (σ0ri) is the specific relaxed stress, N is the number of loadings, and a0, a1, a2, b are constants.
  • 石川 皓一, 谷村 眞治, 井垣 久
    1981 年 30 巻 331 号 p. 360-365
    発行日: 1981/04/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Propagation velocities of the incremental torsional wave were measured on commercial pure aluminum and copper specimens through the experiments in which incremental torsional impacts were applied to the tubular specimens pre-stressed torsionally to various plastic ranges. It became clear by these experimental results that, for both materials, the incremental wave velocity coincided with the elastic torsional wave velocity, and so the component of the instantaneous plastic response did not appear in the stress levels attained to by usual techniques.
    A constitutive equation was proposed, which can describe not only a boundary limit of the region where the plastic deformation is caused mainly by the movement of dislocations, but also various material behaviors in a wide range of strain rates.
  • 井上 久弘, 井戸 守
    1981 年 30 巻 331 号 p. 366-372
    発行日: 1981/04/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    For the unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic materials, the wedge indentation experiments were accomplished to clarify the relation between tool and work-piece during cutting. The indenting speed was changed from 0.01 to 10.0cm/min..
    The main results obtained are as follows:
    (1) The indenting load increased with increasing indenting speed.
    (2) At the high indenting speed range, the specimen broke when the wedge angle was small, while cracks appeared near the contact part between wedge face and specimen when the wedge angle became large.
    (3) The inclination angle of yarn to the side of rectangular specimen strongly affected the fracture of specimen.
    (4) The indenting speed scarcely affected both deformation of matrix and the fracture of glass fiber under the wedge face.
  • 下河 利行, 浜口 泰正
    1981 年 30 巻 331 号 p. 373-379
    発行日: 1981/04/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution properties of fatigue life and fatigue strength of notched graphite/epoxy composite specimens. Sharply notched specimens were made of an eight-ply (0/±45/90)s AS/3501 laminate. Their fatigue life distributions were obtained by the carefully designed fatigue tests of four point plane bending under a constant temperature and humidity condition. The scatter and distribution shape of fatigue life and those of fatigue strength were discussed from the test results.
  • 鈴木 恵, 岩本 正治, 北 宗城
    1981 年 30 巻 331 号 p. 380-386
    発行日: 1981/04/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The effects of the degree of polymerization, stabilizer and reformer on the fatigue crack propagation of polyvinyl chloride were studied from the view point of fracture mechanics and fractographic consideration. The fatigue crack growth rate decreased with an increase in the degree of polymerization at the same stress intensity factor range. The rate for the specimen PVC (Pb) was lower than that of PVC (Sn). This result was explained by macroscopic and microscopic observation on fracture surface. The rate for the specimen PVC (Pb)/MBS increased with an increase in the amount of reformer MBS, but that for the specimen PVC (Sn)/MBS depended upon both the quantity and the dispersion state of reformer.
    Striations and tear lines were observed on the fatigue fracture surface of PVC(Sn). Ripple-like and tear patterns were observed on the fracture surface of PVC (Sn)/MBS, while, dimple patterns were observed on the fracture surfaces of PVC(Pb) and PVC(Pb)/MBS.
  • 塩田 俊雄, 小松 眞一郎
    1981 年 30 巻 331 号 p. 387-393
    発行日: 1981/04/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The influence of graphite nodule diameter on Charpy impact test characteristics was studied for some spheroidal graphite cast irons with ferritic and pearlitic matrix. The graphite nodule diameter was varied by changing the cooling rate of the same molten metal.
    The Charpy impact value at the ductile fracture region decreased with decreasing graphite nodule diameter in the case of ferritic matrix, but increased in the case of pearlitic matrix. However, the Charpy impact value at the brittle fracture region increased with decreasing graphite nodule diameter in both ferritic and pearlitic matrix, because graphite nodules and grain boundaries have the ability to halt the crack propagation. The transition temperature of Charpy impact test value in the case of ferritic matrix was considerably lower than that of the pearlitic matrix case, and in both cases the transition temperature became lower with decreasing graphite nodule diameter. These results are considered to be due to the multiple effects of crystal grain size and graphite nodule diameter.
  • 岩永 弘之, 沖 猛雄
    1981 年 30 巻 331 号 p. 394-400
    発行日: 1981/04/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The corrosion behavior of metal is closely related with its polarization behavior in a corrosive solution. The polarization behavior is also useful for understanding pitting corrosion or stress corrosion cracking in particular. Stainless steel was adopted as the testing material in this experiment and the anodic polarization curves were measured under various constant loads applied on the specimen in 3% NaCl solution, and the pitting initiation potential, passivity, passivity maintaining current, the change in roughness of specimen surface and the difference in pitting corrosion depth were also measured. The results obtained are as follows.
    (1) The pitting initiation of SUS 430 was less noble than SUS 316 and the pitting initiation potential shifted towards the less-noble side with increasing applied stress. Under no stress condition, the pitting initiation potential of SUS 316 was about +0.20V(vs. S.C.E.), and SUS 430 about 0.00V(vs. S.C.E.), but they began to shift remarkably towards the less-noble side from the yield point of the specimen. In the plastic deformation region, the pitting initiation potential of SUS 316 and SUS 430 became -0.0058V and -0.30V, respectively. Therefore, a part of the safe potential region for corrosion under no stress was changed to the pitting initiation potential region by the increase in applied stress.
    (2) The passivity maintaining current increased with increasing applied stress. The pits in SUS 430 grew to deep pits and concentrated on the specified area of specimen surface. On the other hand the pits depth in SUS 316 was shallow and were dispersed over the specimen surface.
  • 池尻 忠夫
    1981 年 30 巻 331 号 p. 401-406
    発行日: 1981/04/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The study of the arc resistance of synthetic resin in insulating liquids has, scarcely been carried out systematically in the past. Even the test method has not been established yet, and the arc resistance in insulating liquids is usually assumed from the data of the arc resistance in air.
    In this paper, the arc resistance tests were carried out in various insulating liquids such as transformer oil, silicone oil, etc. to investigate the fundamental properties of arc resistance of systhetic resin in insulating liquids. Then, the effect of the difference in insulating liquids on the arc resistance and the effect of the existence of insulating liquids on the process of arc deterioration were discussed. Furthermore, the effects of the sample size and the geometrical form in the arc resistance test in insulating liquids were investigated.
    As the test method, ASTM D 495 standard method was adopted with some modifications. The applied voltage was as high as 45kV, because of need of arcing in insulating liquids. The electrode gap length was 5mm. The arc resistance was obtained in various insulating liquids for various synthetic resin samples.
    The experimental results showed that there was no coincidence between the arc resistance of synthetic resin in air and that in insulating oil, and the estimation of arc resistance in insulating oil from that in air was generally difficult.
    It was elucidated that the arc resistances of various epoxy resins in insulating oil gave generally a convex or concave whenplotted against the amount of amine type or acid anhydrous type curing agent as same as in air.
    Furthermore, the arc resistance of synthetic resins were influenced by the kinds of insulating liquids and they were good in transformer oil and in xylene but bad in silicone oil.
    The sample size effect on the arc resistance of synthetic resin in insulating oil was not observed at least in 2∼7mm of electrode gap length. However, it was clarified that the effects of spatial configuration and geometrical form existed.
  • 加藤 寛, 吉川 敬治
    1981 年 30 巻 331 号 p. 407-413
    発行日: 1981/04/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Elastic anisotropy of materials containing columnar crystals was experimentally studied. Equations were obtained, which evaluate the elastic stiffnesses of transversely anisotropic materials from the values of technical constants: Young's modulus Ez, and Poisson's ratios νxz and νyz. These equations were applied to the calculation of elastic stiffnesses of Al-2wt.% Cu alloys containing columnar crystals; the values calculated almost agreed with those obtained from its ultrasonic velocities. The elastic constants determined from the tensile testing, however, were more anisotropic than those from the ultrasonic testing. This discrepancy was explained by the difference in material deformation between two experimental methods. The elastic constants of the solutionized and aged alloys were also obtained to confirm the effect of heat treatments on elastic properties. It was found that the constants were influenced by structures in materials, especially by the second phase such as the eutectic phase or precipitate.
  • 河口 英樹, 上田 隆章
    1981 年 30 巻 331 号 p. 414-418
    発行日: 1981/04/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    An experimental study was carried out on the photodecomposition of unplasticized and plasticized PVC films. The PVC films were irradiated with a Xenon lamp in the temperature range of 30-50°C. The amount of hydrogen chloride evolved was determined by a chlorine ion-meter. Other gaseous products of the photodecomposition were identified and determined by gas-chromatography. The summary of the results obtained are as follows.
    (1) Eleven kinds of gaseous products were detected during the photodecomposition of unplasticized PVC film. The main products were hydrogen chloride and carbon dioxide, and their amounts were of the order of 40-60μg/cm2. Hydrogen chloride evolved increased with an increase in temperature, while carbon dioxide decreased.
    (2) In the case of photodecomposition of PVC film plasticized with Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, fifteen kinds of gaseous products were detected. The amount of hydrogen chloride evolved was 1/10-1/7 of that of unplasticized film. Carbon dioxide evolved increased with an increase in temperature. This fact was supposed to be due to the photodecomposition of Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate. The amounts of olefinic hydrocarbons (ethylene, propylene) were about several tens times that in the case of unplasticized film.
  • 鈴木 洋夫
    1981 年 30 巻 331 号 p. 419-425
    発行日: 1981/04/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
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