In response to recent social phenomenon of adolescents reporting increasingly higher levels of anger, a new construct "assumed-competence" is proposed in this study. The purpose of Study 1 is to formulate an instrument to measure individual differences in assumed-competence and to examine the construct validity of the scale by comparing it with self-esteem in relation to past experiences. Four scales designed to measure assumed-competence, past experiences, self-esteem, and narcissistic-competence were administered to 393 university students. The ACS (Assumed-Competence Scale) consisting of 11 items showed high reliability. The ACS showed no significant relationship to self-esteem, but was positively related to narcissistic-competence. Self-esteem was positively correlated with positive experiences and assumed-competence was also positively correlated with negative experiences. Study 2 aimed at investigating the relationship between assumed-competence and anger measured using Spielberger's STAXI. Results suggested that individuals with high assumed-competence had higher trait anger than those with low assumed-competence. However, self-esteem inhibited the expression of anger.
This research was designed to measure differences in expressive actions when walking under certain emotional states, and under normal emotional states. The emotional states compared in this study were impatience, anger, happiness, sadness and anxiousness. A significant main effect was found between all 17 items used to evaluate walking. Further analysis suggested a pattern between walking with these emotions and walking under normal conditions. There was virtually no difference observed between normal and happy walking. Additionally, results of a cluster analysis on the five walking conditions with normal and emotional states revealed three clusters: 1) active walking (impatient, angry walking), 2) passive walking (sad, anxious walking) and 3) low visibility walking (normal, happy walking). Passive walking (sad, anxious walking) was revealed to be comparatively weaker action than low visibility walking. And active walking was comparatively stronger action than low visibility walking.
The purpose of this study was to measure psycho physiological response to 'agari'. 'Agari' is defined loosely as stage fright, and was measured in this study as an internal state of psychological and physiological arousal which occurs in performance situations. To test the effects of 'agari', eighteen participants give a speech in front of several observers (experimental condition), and another eighteen students were asked to read an essay aloud without observation (control condition). Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and respiration rate (RR) were recorded at rest (baseline), while waiting to present, and before and after presentating. Participants were also asked to complete several questionnaires, the 'Agari' State Questionnaire, the STAI A-State, and the General-Arousal Check List at the same time as the physiological measures were taken. All physiological responses increased significantly in the experimental condition, and all responses were significantly higher in the experimental condition than in control condition before the task, and while waiting to present. In the experimental condition, mean levels of 'agari' and general arousal increased significantly before the presentation, but changes in STAI-state did not reach significantly before the presentation, but changes in STAI-state did not reach significance. Results suggest that'agari' might be triggers of psychological and physiological responses, but 'agari' does not necessarily trigger state anxiety.
Many researchers have historically shied away from psychological experiments with olfactory stimuli on account of their lack of ability to tackle the handling of odor substances. This article introduced various methods of presenting odor-stimuli in psychological experiments. From the highly skillful methods to control the chemical and physical properties of odorants by use of an expensive olfactometer to the simple method of arranging everyday-materials sold in the supermarket, explanations of various methods used in olfactory research were offered. Methods to carry out experiments using olfactometers, odor-jars, odor paper-strips, odor-bags, squeeze bottles and other tools, were described in detail.