In this study, we aimed to create a list of stimulus words suitable for evoking emotions that are placed evenly in the emotional space. College students (n＝38) were invited into the laboratory and presented with two-character (Kanji) idioms, which were controlled for the number of characters and moras. We asked the students to evaluate the emotional valence and arousal level on an affect grid for each of the two-character idioms. We succeeded in creating a list of emotional words that minimize the interdependent influences of emotional valence and arousal factor as much as possible. A total of 271 two-character idioms were constituted using an evaluation that focused on the evoked emotions, and not on the attributions of the words’ meanings. Therefore, the inventory has adequate validity as a list of emotional words to be used for experiments.
This study was designed to develop a new measure to assess the affinity for hikikomori in university students. Undergraduates (n＝267) completed items inquiring the affinity for hikikomori, and measures of school non-attendance, depression, quality of life, and relationships with friends. The Affinity for Hikikomori Scale in University Students was developed based on the results of exploratory factor analyses. The scale was composed of two subscales: Desire for hikikomori and empathy for others with hikikomori. Total score on the Affinity for Hikikomori Scale in University Students and desire for hikikomori subscale score were positively correlated with average number of absence from each classes. Additionally, total and subscale scores of the scale were higher among students that had experienced school non-attendance than those without such experiences. These findings indicated the adequate construct validity of the scale. Furthermore, total scale score and desire for hikikomori subscale score were associated with increased depression and decreased quality of life and satisfaction with friend relationships. In contrast, empathy for others with hikikomori did not deteriorate the adaptation of participants.
The aim of this study was to develop the Tablet PC version of Self-Esteem Implicit Association Test (SE-IAT/Tablet) for children and to examine its reliability and validity. Participants were children in 5th to 6th grades. The reliability was examined using intraclass and Pearson’s correlations, which showed moderate levels of positive correlations in each gender group and overall. With respect to the validity, the scores of the SE-IAT/Tablet revealed significant positive correlations with the Paper and Pencil Version of Self-Esteem Implicit Association Test (SE-IAT/Paper) that is partially confirmed as a reliable and valid measure of autonomous self-esteem. Moreover, three-way analyses of variance (school×grades×sex) illustrated that both types of SE-IAT scores were higher in 6th grade than in 5th grade. Through these results, the current study successfully developed the SE-IAT/Tablet with a certain amount of reliability and validity. Limitations are discussed, along with the possibility to widely utilize the test in future fundamental and applied studies.
Previous studies have reported that cognitive reappraisal is related to decentering and mental health. However, there are two limitations in the current literature. First, it is unclear whether distraction facilitates decentering. Second, anxiety is the only index that has been used to assess mental health. Therefore, we examined whether cognitive reappraisal and distraction enhance decentering, which in turn improves mental health. Three hundred and eighty-seven university students answered questionnaires that assessed cognitive reappraisal, distraction, and decentering. Additionally, we measured depression, subjective happiness, and life satisfaction as mental health indicators. Our results confirmed that cognitive reappraisal and distraction influence mental health. In addition, decentering mediated the effect of cognitive reappraisal and distraction on mental health. These results suggest that distraction and cognitive reappraisal enhance decentering, which in turn, improves mental health.