Depressive rumination, which is defined as “repetitively focusing on the fact that one is depressed; on one’s symptoms of depression; and on the causes, meanings, and consequences of depressive symptoms” (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) had been reported as a risk factor for various mental illnesses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence the persistence of ruminative thought during a Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). Participants (25 women and 20 men) were randomly assigned to either a low cognitive group or a high cognitive group. Ruminative thoughts were induced in participants, who completed thought sampling during the SART. The analysis revealed that the reaction time of SART and the positive belief of depressive rumination influence on the persistence of ruminative thought.
Longitudinal associations among behaviors toward parents, family relationships, and depression were investigated. In Study 1, undergraduate students (n＝356) responded to items that represented behaviors toward their fathers and mothers. Exploratory factor analyses extracted three factors: Behaviors as equals, Intimate behaviors, and Aggressive verbal behaviors. Based on these results, the Behaviors toward Father Scale and the Behaviors toward Mother Scale were developed. In Study 2, undergraduate students (n＝194) responded to measures assessing behaviors toward parents, parents’ social support, family function, and depression, twice at the interval of six weeks. Results indicated that Behaviors as equals toward both parents at Time 1 increased their social support to students at Time 2. Moreover, Behaviors as equals toward mothers increased family function. Also, social support from fathers and family function decreased depression. Additionally, depression increased Behaviors as equals and Intimate behaviors toward both parents, as well as Aggressive verbal behaviors toward fathers. These findings suggest that depression among undergraduate students might increase behaviors which strengthen family relationships.
The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is frequently used in studies of implicit self-esteem of Japanese college students to measure the relative strength of “self-positive” and “not self-negative” associations. Another way to measure implicit self-esteem is to employ the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), which measures the strength of pre-established verbal relationships by evaluating responses to various stimuli. However, studies of the implicit self-esteem of Japanese college students using IRAP have yet to be conducted. In the present study, we used IRAP to measure the implicit self-esteem of Japanese college students, while simultaneously seeking to observe factors affecting implicit self-esteem. Our findings confirmed strong relationships between “self-positive” and “not self-negative”, results similar to those produced using the IAT. Furthermore, high scores were observed for “same-positive” verbal relations, leading us to conclude that not only evaluating oneself positively but also evaluating others negatively might function to improve implicit self-esteem.