This study aimed to examine the relationship among athletes’ envy, athletic events, and competitive level. A survey was conducted among 496 university athletes (428 men and 68 women). The results indicated that competitive level was positively associated with benign envy in competitive sports (open-skill sports), while no significant association between the two was observed in record sports (closed-skill sports). Moreover, athletic events and competitive level were not significantly associated with malicious envy. Therefore, envy scores differed depending on the athletic events, competitive level, and the combinations thereof.
Resilience is the capacity to cope with stress, characterized as an activation process that protects one from psychological damage in adapting to personal and situational changes. Resilience is related to emotional processes including the attentional system and has been studied with spatial attention tasks. However, the relationship between resilience traits and temporal attention to emotional stimuli has not been studied. We investigated this relationship using an attentional blink (AB) paradigm. Observers searched two target upright faces (T1 and T2) inserted in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream of inverted pictorial faces. The T1 and T2 tasks involved gender judgment and facial expressions (neutral, anger, and happy) judgment, respectively. A multivariate regression analysis showed that resilience scale score significantly predicted AB magnitude in response to negative stimuli, suggesting that resilience is related to temporary attentional bias toward negative information within a second.
The study investigated the possibility that respondents’ wishes could facilitate the constructs associated with Implicit Association Test (IAT), in the case of romantic fantasy (RF). Adult married females numbering 44 participated in the study; their explicit romantic perceptions toward their actual partner (RF-actual), their explicit romantic wishes for their ideal partner (RF-ideal), and their implicit construct association of their actual partner with Prince Charming in IAT (RF-IAT) were assessed. The following results were found in the RF-actual-low group (n＝33): (1) RF-ideal was significantly and positively correlated with RF-IAT and (2) RF-ideal, together with RF-IAT, was significantly and negatively correlated with the marriage satisfaction, while RF-actual was significantly and positively correlated with marriage satisfaction. The findings suggest that IAT respondents’ wishes for, but not their perception of, their partners could have facilitated the constructs associated with IAT. The findings address new possible evidence of the propositional model of implicit evaluation addressed by De Houwer (2014) .