The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between school-phobia and anger among junior high school students. In a pilot test, 30 items were identified as being related to school phobia, and the School Phobia Feelings Scale was constructed using these items. Results of Study I using this scale indicated that school phobia could be explained by three factors: laziness, inferiority complex, and peer relationships (n=442). Moreover, feelings related to school phobia in girls were unrelated to grade level. In Study 2, an Anger Scale measuring anger in junior high school students in the areas of hostility, excitement, and physiological reactions was developed. The relationship between school phobia and anger was explored using these two scales. The results indicated (1) an increase in school phobia resulted in parents becoming an object of anger, and (2) problems with peer relationships increased levels of reported anger.
This research investigated the effects of various kinds of receiver's emotions on (1) incompatibility when people attached emoticons to cellular phone email messages, (2) the kind of emoticon, and (3) the relationship between the sender's message and the kind of emoticon utilized. Forty-two Japanese university students (27 female, 15 male) sent messages with an emoticon to an imaginary friend who felt an emotion (happy, sad, anxiety, anger). Results suggested that receivers attached an emoticon to an email when they felt anxious. When receivers felt anxiety, senders tended to attach a smiley emoticon. This suggests that an emoticon was not just used as an expressive message, but was also sent to manipulate a receiver's emotion.
The purpose of this study was to compare recognition processing of dynamic and static facial expressions evaluated through dimensional and categorical judgments. Facial stimuli were comprised of eight emotions (excitement, happy, calm, surprise, sleepy, fear, anger and sadness) based on dimensional perspectives. Participants evaluated each facial stimuli with three methods, Affect Grid (Russell, Weiss, & Mendelsohn, 1989), forced choice task, and on a seven-point Likert scale. For dynamic expressions, the results from the forced choice task and Likert scale were as follows: slow facial expressions (e. g., sleepy) were more easily identifiable, while unpleasant facial expressions (fear, anger and sadness) were often confused with each other. Results suggest that recognition of facial expressions differs between dynamic and static expressions.