We investigated the effects of a special breathing technique, the “Breathing Retraining technique,” on performance in emergency situations. Participants were divided into three groups: breathing method group, visual task group, and the control group. Participants in the breathing method group performed the breathing retraining technique; those in the visual task group performed a simple visual task, whereas the control group performed any task, before the main task. The main task was the water-pipe game, in which participants clicked a computer mouse in various situations to complete the game using the minimum number of clicks. Results indicated that the breathing method group accomplished the most difficult main tasks faster and more efficiently than the other groups in simulated emergency situations. These results suggest that people can work comparatively fast and efficiently, even in emergency situations, by practicing the breathing retraining technique in advance. Additionally, there were no significant differences between the visual task group and the control group. This result indicates that it is not important that putting merely interval, but practicing the right breathing method improves behavior in emergencies.
The present study focused on the determination factors of the sentencing decisions in the fictional case of accidental mortality from the aspects of the enhancement and inhibiting effects. 71 undergraduate students participated in the scenario experiment and they were subjected to a statement presented by the victim. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that sympathy for crime victim made the sentence stricter. Furthermore, normative values such as “the trial must be rational, not emotional” had the inhibiting effect on sympathy for victim and the sentence to the defendant. Suggestions for future research on the determination of the punishment were discussed.
This study investigates the relationship between confidence and regret. We predicted that high levels of confidence—where confidence is defined as reduced counterfactual thinking—would limit the experience of regret. A previous study by Gilovich & Medvec (1995) found an action/inaction effect, where regret is higher when one fails to act. However, this effect may no longer exist once we conceptually distinguish the decision to act from one's confidence about that decision. The decision to act is usually accompanied with a high level of confidence, and little counterfactual thinking. We hypothesized that regardless of action/inaction, regret will be significantly lower when a decision is made with high confidence. In Experiment 1, participants read a series of scenarios and made a decision. Before receiving feedback on their decision, participants rated their level of confidence about the decision. In Experiment 2, participants read a hypothetical mistake made by an individual and estimated that individual's level of regret. The results support our hypothesis that level of confidence about decisions affects feelings of regret.
In the present study, the authors focused on how explicit and implicit shyness are associated with other personality traits and emotions. Explicit shyness is assumed to be consciously grasped whereas implicit shyness is supposed to be difficult to be understood that way. In this study, forty-one participants completed the Implicit Association Test (IAT) for measuring implicit shyness, and the self-report scales of explicit shyness, aggression, loneliness, self-monitoring and subjective well-being. A correlation analysis revealed a significant positive association between implicit shyness and subjective well-being (r=.41, p=.01). This result suggests adaptive aspects of implicit shyness. For future directions, researchers have to closely examine robustness of this result and collect more data.
Recent development of economics has spawned new branches within it, behavioral economics and neuroeconomics. To investigate the problem of how humans cooperate and conform to norms, economics has also extended its scope to interdisciplinary research into human “ultrasociality.” These new trends have today come to urge us to review the traditional conception of humans in economics, homo economicus. Neuroeconomics has brought to the fore the naturalistic conception of humans, while the research into human cooperation has brought to the light the conception of humans that create social/institutional facts (homo instituens). This paper tries to characterize these newly emerging conceptions of humans and examine their impact on how we understand and design social institutions.
Human societies are characterized by large-scale cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals. One evolutionary explanation for such human ultra-sociality is the notion of “strong reciprocity,” which posits that strong reciprocators not only unconditionally cooperate but also punish non-cooperators in order to enforce cooperative norms within their groups. Supportive evidence for strong reciprocity is that people tend to punish non-cooperators in various experimental settings. However, employing more precise definitions and refined methodologies, recent studies cast serious doubt on the presence of punitive sentiments/behaviors toward non-cooperators. Nonetheless, people do report anger toward violators of shared norms of their community. In addition, violation of the honesty norm (presumably, an instance of widely shared norms) seems to reliably trigger third-party punishment. It seems important to clearly distinguish “shared-norm violators” from “non-cooperators” in order to understand human ultra-sociality.
A set of morals is a possible mechanism by which to maintain our society. Heath (2008) argues for the importance of conformity to norms from a rationalist position. However, norm conformity can also be explained empirically. Mimicking one another's behavior is nothing more than following rules that already exist. This behavior always helps us avert potential loss. We experience guilt about our own rule-breaking behavior and anger or envy toward another's. Thus, emotions encourage following rules and help lessen our risks.