This study examined the correlation between athletes’ grit and burnout using linear and quadratic regression analyses. Study participants comprised of 314 university athletes who answered a questionnaire on socio-demographic variables, the Short Grit Scale (Grit-S), and the Burnout Scale for University Athletes (BOSA). The multiple regression analyses showed negative linear correlations between grit and burnout subscale or total burnout scores. Furthermore, the relationship between the squared term of perseverance and interpersonal exhaustion, team devaluation, and burnout were positively significant, and the squared term of grit was positively connected to interpersonal exhaustion and team devaluation in BOSA. The results indicate that if grit or perseverance were found to be too high, athletes were inclined to experience interpersonal exhaustion, team devaluation, and burnout easily.
The present study aimed to develop and validate the Japanese version of the Body Perception Questionnaire-Body Awareness Very Short Form (BPQ-BAVSF-J). In Study 1, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 358 crowdsourced participants and 296 university students. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis and then conducted a confirmatory factor analysis. The results of the factor analysis indicated that the BPQ-BAVSF-J has a unidimensional structure with sufficient reliability. Additionally, consistent with the original version, the BPQ-BAVSF-J had a positive correlation with somatosensory amplification and physical stress. Thus, it was shown that the BPQ-BAVSF-J has adequate validity. In Study 2, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 305 and 295 crowdsourced participants and then compared the BPQ-BAVSF-J and the Japanese version of the Body Perception Questionnaire-Body Awareness Short Form (BPQ-BASF-J). The results of Study 2 showed that both the BPQ-BAVSF-J and the BPQ-BASF-J had the same level of correlation with the validity scale. These results suggest that the BPQ-BAVSF-J can measure interoceptive awareness as well as the BPQ-BASF-J, which has a larger number of items. In study 3, we conducted a two-wave survey with a one-month interval (N＝68) and confirmed that the BPQ-BAVSF-J has sufficient test-retest reliability.
Stereotypical thoughts are directly linked with discrimination and prejudice and hence to be avoided. However, previous studies have failed to establish methods to reduce stereotypical thoughts, nor investigate how they influence affective states. In this report, we used an expressive writing which influences restructuring cognitions as well as affective states and examined how stereotypes about older adults and affective states were influenced by intentional expression or suppression of stereotypical thoughts. Participants were randomly assigned to groups of intentional expression, intentional suppression of stereotypical thoughts, or the control condition. In each group, the participants first performed an expressive writing task concerning the behavior of an older person. The intentional expression group emphasized aging stereotypes, the suppression group was asked to avoid describing stereotypes about older individuals; then participants performed a stereotype rating task in which they reported their impressions of another individual after reading sentences concerning one person. Their own emotional states were reported before and after the expressive writing task and after evaluating the impressions. Results revealed no differences in ratings of aging stereotypes across the three groups of manipulated stereotypical thoughts. However, a reduction in negative affect was found in all conditions. These findings suggest that we could not identify a strategy for reducing negative aging stereotypes but we found a strategy for improving negative affect.