This study examined whether individual differences in Belief in a Zero-Sum Game (BZSG; Różycka-Tran et al., 2015) predicted anti-immigrant attitudes. Esses et al. (1998) indicated that Zero-Sum Beliefs about allocating resources between a host country’s citizens and immigrants predict anti-immigrant attitudes. However, why individual differences in Zero-Sum Beliefs appear and predict anti-immigrant attitudes has not been examined. Two studies demonstrated that the BZSG Scale, which assesses the individual difference in the perception of general resource distribution, predicts anti-immigrant attitudes. This result suggests that perceiving intergroup situations as competitive influences anti-immigrant attitudes.
Despite a large gender gap, life satisfaction among women has been nearly equal to or even higher than that among men in Japan. We investigated the relationship between life satisfaction and system justification using two existing datasets and two preregistered surveys administered to Japanese adults (total N＝2,833), employing two scales—system justification for gender disparity in annual personal income (Existing dataset 1 and Survey 1) and gender system justification (Existing dataset 2 and Survey 2). In line with previous research, we found that life satisfaction among women was nearly equal to (Existing datasets 1 and 2 and Survey 1) and significantly higher than (Survey 2) that among men. Contrary to our prediction, women were less likely to endorse system justification than men across four datasets. However, as expected, we found a palliative function of system justification among women across four datasets—women who strongly justified the existing system displayed higher life satisfaction than women who weakly justified it.