In general, it is said that a teacher grasps a learner's learning situation through the practice record of the learner and uses the information for training. However, past research has not clarified which part of the descriptive information a teacher should pay attention to in order to enhance the instruction of practice. This research aimed to clarify some aspects of acquisition and work strategy by examining characteristics of the practice record description in the skill acquisition process. We conducted an investigation at training facilities of an electric/electronic device manufacturer in October, 1992. The research included 45 trainees. Training was given continuously for five days. The instructor instructed and had the trainees practice three subjects from the first day to the third day of training. On the fifth day of the training, a completion examination was conducted and a mock examination was given on the forthday. The subject of the work was "soldering the printed circuit board." We had the trainees fill in a questionnaire immediately after the practice. The contents of the description are notes to be taken in today's work, review of the work result, and the next work plan. We extracted the terms often used and noted the number of times each term appeared. From this result, we examined how term usage changed along with progress in training. The trainees were divided into two groups, the high score group and low score group according to results of the completion examination, and the characteristics of each group were examined. As a result, the following points were identified. In the work plan of the high score group on the first day, the key words were "time reduction." The key words of the high score group on the second day was "measures accompanied with reason." The third day's key words were "measures to solve the remaining problems." The forth day's key words were "challenging the weak subjects." "Time reduction" remains the issue for the low score group from the first to the forth day. Both groups have described the "comprehensive direction of work" in their work plans on the fifth day. From this, come to the conclusion that if the teacher immediately examines a learner's practice record from a specific viewpoint, he/she will be able to better perceive learner problems and can then conduct instruction accordingly.
The new upper secondary educational system in Sweden was introduced in the autumn of 1992 and will be completed by 1995. The Swedish upper secondary educational system consists of more than 30 lines and more than 100 special courses at present. But the present system is being changed into 16 national programs. Social Science and Natural Science are for university entrance, while the other 14 are vocational. I want to study the special feature of the 14 vocational programs and the comparative education between Japan and Sweden. The concrete ideas of Swedish system are as follows; 1. Equal rights to education throughout the country. 2. Young people (up to 20) have the right to have the upper secondary education, after that, municipalities have an obligation to provide them with adult education (vocational courses are popular among them). 3. Sixteen 3-year educational programs for all students. 4. Harmony both in general and in vocational subjects. 5. A more flexible system with scope for locally determined study profiles. 6. At least 15% of vocational programs allocated to work places. 7. Individual programs oriented towards apprentice training and vocational training. 8. The reform will be financed extra cost of 1.8billion SEK." These reforms will be carried out by changing the marking system and intensifying teachers training and study. The relative system of marks on a 5-point scale, currently employed in both compulsory and upper secondary school, with 5 the maximum obtainable and 3 the average award, is to be superseded by goal-related marks. Marks in upper secondary school will be awarded on a 4-point scale: Excellent, Passed with Distinction, Passed and Failed. The final award will be a aggregation of all the marks received by the student during their upper secondary career. Service-in teachers in vocational subjects are requested to have more training hours than the present on advanced economics and technology. In conclusion, as we consider our new curriculum on the vocational education, we should be interested in some point of the educational reform in Sweden. For example, there are some differences on computer education between in Japan and in Sweden. Swedish education places stress on the computer education to deep knowledge. But I couldn't find the concrete contents about it in context of reforms of upper secondary education. Secondly, we should study a vocational training system, an apprentice training, and project works in Sweden, comparing Japanese educational system with Swedish. Swedish educational reforms will be continued in the future, because Sweden wants to take part in the EC market. The Swedish economy and society needs to adjust to the EC. And so, big changes in educational reform will come to Sweden again.
In July, 1904, Text Book of Manual Training for the Use of Elementary School Teachers was published for the first time in Japan. This textbook was written by Rokushiro UEHARA and Hidekichi OKAYAMA, and it was only a "state-textbook" for Manual Training of both Ordinary Elementary School Course (the term of study was four years) and Higher Elementary School Course (most of four years). About the lesson plans for these eight grades of the textbook, nevertheless, there are very few research that especially observed studies in four grades of Ordinary Elementary Course, and Grade 1-2 of Higher Elementary Course, and investigated the whole framework of it. The primary purpose of this research, therefore, is to analyze chiefly teaching materials of the textbook, such as products, that were organized in the areas of studies in, from Grade 1 of Ordinary Elementary to Grade 2 of Higher Elementary, six grades, and to clarify the foremost features and significance of the lesson plans of the textbook. It is also necessary that we should examine this in comparison with the educational idea that Rokusiro UEHARA (1848-1913) meditated to Manual Training on, before the textbook was published. Because it has seemed that UEHARA did his part as the leading author of this textbook. The main findings of this research are as follows; 1. This textbook consistently attached importance to primary drawing that was based upon the development of the sense of planes and solids, and the acquirement of the concepts of ones, by means of the formation of the teaching materials that corresponded with the primary fundamental principles of Geometrie Descriptive, through the six grades, from Grade 1 of Ordinary Elementary to Grade 2 of Higher Elementary. 2. This attempt was especially intended to operate in "Arranging Colored Card", "Bean and Bamboo-Cane Working", "Clay Working", "Cutting out Paper", "Card-board Working". 3. It was manual training of elementary schools in France after the latter nineteenth century that suggested to introduce this feature, attaching importance to study the primary drawing, into the textbook. The manual training in France was founded on drawing, too. 4. This (No.3) had very much to do with that UEHARA was proficient in French, and he had professional knowledge of natural science and drawing. 5. We ought not to overlook the significance of the textbook, that is, it attempted to realize the practices of Manual Training that were based on primary drawing, and piled each study up on it, toward senior grades from Grade 1 of Ordinary Elementary Course, in turn.
This report is a part of the study for lifelong education at private enterprises in Japan. The focus of this essay is to make clear the educational relation with the social responsibility of enterprise and the philanthropy movement in Japan. Because the both have closely connection with the lifelong education in the enterprises. For example, the training and education in enterprises is a part of the lifelong education and we find many kinds of educational activities in the philanthropy. But, we must understood the basic different nature between the social responsibilty and the philanthropy. In addition, we have to know their actual condition. So that this report consists of following articles. (a) The process of the development about the social responsibility of the enterprise. (b) The actual condition of the philanthropy movement and the point at issue. (c) The actual condition of the training or education and the social responsibility, especially, the relation both a society composed largely of elderly people and the life-long education for them.
Today, at Japanese universities and colleges, lecturers are encouraging to do the self analysis and evaluation in order to revive education and research. I, as a member of the self analysis and evaluation committee at Toyama College for Girls, have considered a way to improve the teaching method of the self analysis and evaluation of "Human Relations", which is also my teaching subject. As a method for analysis and evaluation, at our college, I have collected my student's opinions on how well they understand their lessons and how fast lessons should be proceeded. I also have collected people's opinions, who have left college and university to work, if the education they had received is helpful. As a result of this I have drawn the following conclusions. Firstly, I will try to improve the lessons which are acknowledged by people concerned. Secondly, I will try to improve the lessons which are not very well organised in order to develop a truly meaningful educational activity.